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What Surgeons Want From Healthcare
Dr. Zuckerman is chairman of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases and the Walter A.L. Thompson professor of orthopaedic surgery at the NYU School of Medicine. He was also elected the 2009 President of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
A graduate of Cornell University in New York and the Medical College of Wisconsin, Dr. Zuckerman completed his internship and residency at the University of Washington and a fellowship at Harvard’s Brigham and Women’s Hospital, in addition to duties as a visiting clinician in shoulder surgery at the Mayo Clinic.
Dr. Zuckerman is recognized internationally as an expert in shoulder surgery and hip and knee replacement. Dr. Zuckerman has served as President of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons and has published over 250 scientific articles. The Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation (OREF) presented Dr. Zuckerman with its Clinical Research Award in 2002 and he has also received the “Teacher of the Year” Award on five separate occasions from the residents at the NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases.
Question: What does healthcare reform mean to you?
Joseph Zuckerman: So, today is November 25th, 2009. We are not probably six months into the healthcare reform debate. In the next two months, will be critical in determining what healthcare will look like in the future. As President of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, we have been actively involved in the healthcare debate because we represent our members. There are 18,000 orthopedic surgeons practicing in this country.
There are some basic tenants, some basic principles of healthcare reform that we think are important. The first is, patients should be able to have access to physicians that they want to see. And for us, that means specialists. As orthopedic surgeons, we believe, and we know that we're the experts in the orthopedic and musculoskeletal problems. And we think, in this country, patients should be able to see specialists who can provide the care that they need.
So a system that allows them to do that is a good one. A system that makes it difficult to do that, or decreases access to a specialist would be one that we couldn't support because you're taking a step backwards from the development of medical care in this country, which has developed to such a great extent and really is at some of the highest levels in the world. And I do believe that the medical care provided in this country is the most up-to-date, innovative found any where, and that's important.
Then you get to the issue of coverage of those Americans that aren't insured and we also think that's important. The uninsured in this country should have insurance. But it has to be in a system that can support it. So, it should be affordable with the appropriate access. One of our concerns is that the system, as it is currently constructed in this country, doesn't make it easy to add 20, 30, or 40 million new patients to the system. Medicare is a good example of it.
Medicare, when it was introduced in 1965, was a new program, there was a lot of resistance to it, but it's proven to be a very important healthcare insurance program for the seniors, people over the age of 60 or 65, depending on eligibility. That's very important. One of the issues is that each year we hear that Medicare is getting closer and closer to being insolvent, bankruptcy right? Because there are so many people who have Medicare now and there is only a limited number of funds available and Congress has not been able to enact a long-term solution to the Medicare problem.
Now, if you add, as I said, 20, 30, or 40 million more people for healthcare coverage in this country, you're stressing a system that's already been excessively stressed. And I know that current legislation in the House and the Senate has ways that they are going to pay for this and such, but my concern is that on paper, it looks good. Five years from now, it may not work out exactly as they envisioned. Just like Medicare didn't work out exactly as they envisioned way back when, when they first started it. So, I think that's also a concern.
Another area that we think is particularly important is in the area of liability reform; doing something about the explosion of liability cases, malpractice cases in this country, frivolous cases. It's gotten to the point where any physician, not just orthopedic surgeons, any physician, practices medicine in a defensive way, so called "Defensive Medicine." Do I really need to get that CAT scan? Do I really need to get an X-ray on this patient? Well, probably not, but you know there's a small chance it could be there and if I miss something, there could be a suit against this and such. So, that's what we've come to and so much of that adds to the cost of healthcare and it's very disconcerting and disheartening to us, our organization, that in the two main pieces of legislation, the House and now the one that is going to be introduced into the Senate, that there is no meaningful liability reform, which is astounding to me because the Congressional Budget Office, a non-partisan group said that at the very least, over 10 years, we would take away $54 billion from the cost of healthcare in this country with some very limited liability reform issues. So, that's another very important one that I thing we're just missing in this.
Question: Why is healthcare reform so contentious?
Joseph Zuckerman: Well, we do have different types of coverage for different parts of the population. We are one in this country where most of it is employer-based coverage and all employer-based insurance that is provided is different. The level of coverage is different, the deductibles are different, and the out-of-pocket insurance is different. So, I guess if you’ve seen one health insurance plan, then you've seen on health insurance plan because they are not the same.
Then you have Medicare, which insures, I think at last count 50 or 60 million people in this country. That's a very big program. That's a government program. That also has undergone some changes, but it does not have the oversight or the monitoring that you see in the private insurances, the HMO's, the managed care companies.
Medicaid, as you know is the insurance that is provided for the indigent patients. People that are at a certain level below the poverty line that's federally supported or state supported, that's a different level of coverage. So, you've got this amalgamation of different types of coverage that together insures, you know, 180 or 200 million people in this country. Then there's the uninsured, which again, have another -- no insurance, but tend to go to the Emergency Room, or pay out of pocket for these things.
So, even in countries that have had national health insurance, government induced across the board, what develops in those countries is a private insurance system that allows people to augment their coverage, you know, have access to different doctors, better coverage, maybe different hospitals, all those things. We don't have that here because we don't have one consistent system. That's why it's so hard to reform healthcare because you're not reforming one thing. You're reforming a system that has multiple different parts. Very challenging.
Healthcare, being a physician, can be a small business. Right? And that's what it is for the vast majority of the physicians in this country. You have an office, you have expenses, you have to generate revenue to pay your expenses, and that's different than a Kaiser Permanente, or a large healthcare system like the Mayo Clinic, or others like that that are all encompassing. And if you consider an episode of healthcare from the time a patient decides to go to see their physician, or comes to the Emergency Room, until they're now cured, or no longer a problem, they will see multiple practitioners along the way, physicians, non-physicians, physician extenders, therapists, pharmacists, a whole variety of healthcare providers.
In most systems in the country, each one of those providers could be part of a different system, so there's the lack of coordination. A place like Kaiser manages all the episodes of care, the entire episode of care and all the different pieces to it. You can certainly do that more effectively and more efficiently. The question is, can you extrapolate that, or build that into all different communities in this country, and that's hard to do because it's not set up that way.
Question: Why aren’t doctors well represented in the healthcare debate?
Joseph Zuckerman: Well, physicians have organized themselves to a certain extent, but they haven't organized themselves as much as they should. So, if you look at this current healthcare debate, if the government considers the American Medical Association as their spokes group for American medicine, right? Well, what does that mean? I'm not a member of the AMA. I think only 17% of physicians in this country are members of the American Medical Association. So, do they represent the physicians in this country? Probably not. And that's why there has been such push back, and sometimes significant decry about some of the positions the AMA has taken.
Thirty years ago, when the AMA was "the" medical organization in this country, it was more reasonable, expected, anticipated that they could be the spokes group for American medicine. But now it's changed. There are large physician organizations, the American College of Surgeons with I think 60,000 members. Our organization with almost 20,000 members. But not only do we have large numbers of physicians represented based upon the specialty involved, but in addition, every group has a legislative office. In our organization, we have 14 full-time people working our in our Legislative Affairs office. We are actively involved in the legislative process, pushing for the principles of practice and reform we think are important. So many groups have that because they are large enough and they have the resources to do it. Now, what you really effectively need is coalitions of groups to work together. One of the groups that we are involved in with the American College of Surgeons is, a coalition of surgical societies representing surgeons and other specialists trying to pursue a common agenda in this healthcare reform debate.
So, the fact is, it's very hard to organize physicians because the physician groups are now so well-represented within their own specialty and they have lobbyists, or legislative affairs office in Washington D.C. that they can go it alone, so to speak. So, is there a need for organization, probably because you can speak with a louder voice, but we've learned that, what worked 30 years ago when there was one organization, the AMA, is not the case any more because other organizations want to speak up and be heard because they're opinions, or their needs and priorities are different than other organizations.
Doctors have a lot to lose and gain in the healthcare reform debate. As president of a trade organization representing 20,000 surgeons, Dr. Zuckerman outlines their agenda.
- Modern antibiotics can effectively treat bubonic plague, which spreads mainly by fleas.
Bacteria under microscope
needpix.com<p>Today, bubonic plague can be treated effectively with antibiotics.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Unlike in the 14th century, we now have an understanding of how this disease is transmitted," Dr. Shanthi Kappagoda, an infectious disease physician at Stanford Health Care, told <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health-news/seriously-dont-worry-about-the-plague#Heres-how-the-plague-spreads" target="_blank">Healthline</a>. "We know how to prevent it — avoid handling sick or dead animals in areas where there is transmission. We are also able to treat patients who are infected with effective antibiotics, and can give antibiotics to people who may have been exposed to the bacteria [and] prevent them [from] getting sick."</p>
This plague patient is displaying a swollen, ruptured inguinal lymph node, or buboe.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention<p>Still, hundreds of people develop bubonic plague every year. In the U.S., a handful of cases occur annually, particularly in New Mexico, Arizona and Colorado, <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/plague/faq/index.html" target="_blank">where habitats allow the bacteria to spread more easily among wild rodent populations</a>. But these cases are very rare, mainly because you need to be in close contact with rodents in order to get infected. And though plague can spread from human to human, this <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health-news/seriously-dont-worry-about-the-plague#Heres-how-the-plague-spreads" target="_blank">only occurs with pneumonic plague</a>, and transmission is also rare.</p>
A new swine flu in China<p>Last week, researchers in China also reported another public health concern: a new virus that has "all the essential hallmarks" of a pandemic virus.<br></p><p>In a paper published in the <a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/06/23/1921186117" target="_blank">Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences</a>, researchers say the virus was discovered in pigs in China, and it descended from the H1N1 virus, commonly called "swine flu." That virus was able to transmit from human to human, and it killed an estimated 151,700 to 575,400 people worldwide from 2009 to 2010, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.</p>There's no evidence showing that the new virus can spread from person to person. But the researchers did find that 10 percent of swine workers had been infected by the virus, called G4 reassortant EA H1N1. This level of infectivity raises concerns, because it "greatly enhances the opportunity for virus adaptation in humans and raises concerns for the possible generation of pandemic viruses," the researchers wrote.
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