from the world's big
What Indonesia Can Teach Us About Tolerance
Ian \r\nBuruma: Well of course it is not dead, but what has happened is \r\nthat tolerance which we on the whole used to regard as a positive term \r\nmore and more has become a very negative one, and that those who are \r\nafraid that the West or Europe in particular is going to be Islamized, \r\nthat Europe is going to end up as Eurabia or that we’ll be swamped by \r\nintolerant Muslims and so on, tend to see tolerance as at best \r\nindifference, at worst a sort of cowardly appeasement and collaboration \r\nwith Islamic fascism. I think that is very regrettable because \r\ntolerance in the sense of being able to live with people whose opinions \r\nor values you may not share, as long as everybody abides by the law and \r\ndoesn’t start you know slitting each other’s throats I think is \r\nnecessary. And you can’t demand—and the United States is a good example \r\nof this—that the entire population shares exactly the same cultural \r\nvalues, it’s impossible, nor should one demand it. I mean diversity is \r\npart of the societies we live in.
\r\nQuestion: Who does multiculturalism hurt?
Ian Buruma: Well multiculturalism, if it is simply a \r\ndescription of a society which consists of various different cultures \r\nand languages, is one thing. We live in such societies. \r\nMulticulturalism as an ideology that somehow supposes that or promotes \r\nthe idea that people should stick to their own culture and not integrate\r\n or assimilate I think is wrong. But I think as an ideology it is \r\ncertainly on the way out. I don’t think that that many people believe \r\nin that anymore. I think that when you think of it in that dogmatic way\r\n it harms minorities because they’re not encouraged to learn the skills \r\nor the languages that would allow them to take part in the societies and\r\n the economies in a way that would be beneficial to them.
\r\nQuestion: How have former British colonies dealt with the phenomenon\r\n of multiculturalism?
Ian Buruma: Well India is rather a good example of a \r\nplace which has institutionalized multiculturalism in the sense that it \r\nincludes a population of very different cultures and even ethnicities \r\nand I don’t just mean Muslims and Hindus. There are a huge number of \r\ndifferent languages in India and so on. And somehow it works even though\r\n there are instances of violence and tensions and it is a democracy \r\nthat's hugely problematic, but it works. They’ve found a way of dealing\r\n with it that actually probably the West in its more hysterical moments \r\ncould learn something from.
\r\nIndonesia likewise. It was only a nation state because of... because the\r\n Dutch colonial history made it that. I mean it is highly diverse. It \r\nhas only just become a democracy and showing many tensions, but I think \r\nagain one probably we should be paying more attention to Indonesia \r\nbecause it is the country with the largest Muslim population in the \r\nworld and when people say Islam in incompatible with democracy they \r\nshould take another look at Indonesia.
Question: Are \r\nurban-rural divisions a source of violent culture clash in Europe?
Ian Buruma: Well the violence that comes from radical \r\nIslamists for example is sometimes blamed on a clash of civilizations \r\nthat somehow different traditions, one a non-Western one, one a European\r\n one, are sort of violently clashing. I think that is a mistake. It’s a\r\n mistake in analysis, because the people who drop bombs in the London \r\nunderground for example are not guest workers from little villages in \r\nAnatoli or the Rif Mountains in Morocco. They’re people born in Europe \r\nand raised in Europe who often grew up not knowing much about religion. \r\nAnd I think they indeed are often in a kind of no man’s land, which is \r\nvery often true of second generation immigrants, where they are \r\nalienated from the culture of their parents or grandparents and feel \r\nrejected for one reason or another by the country in which they grew up.\r\n And of course they’re vulnerable, particularly vulnerable, to violent \r\ncauses. All young people are vulnerable to them, but they are perhaps \r\nespecially vulnerable.
Recorded April 21, 2010
Looking for a model of successful multiculturalism? You could do worse than former European colonies such as India and Indonesia.
Duke University researchers might have solved a half-century old problem.
- The blend of three polymers provides enough flexibility and durability to mimic the knee.
- The next step is to test this hydrogel in sheep; human use can take at least three years.
Photo: Feichen Yang.<p>That's the word from a team in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at Duke University. Their <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adfm.202003451" target="_blank">new paper</a>, published in the journal,<em> Advanced Functional Materials</em>, details this exciting evolution of this frustrating joint.<br></p><p>Researchers have sought materials strong and versatile enough to repair a knee since at least the seventies. This new hydrogel, comprised of three polymers, might be it. When two of the polymers are stretched, a third keeps the entire structure intact. When pulled 100,000 times, the cartilage held up as well as materials used in bone implants. The team also rubbed the hydrogel against natural cartilage a million times and found it to be as wear-resistant as the real thing. </p><p>The hydrogel has the appearance of Jell-O and is comprised of 60 percent water. Co-author, Feichen Yang, <a href="https://today.duke.edu/2020/06/lab-first-cartilage-mimicking-gel-strong-enough-knees" target="_blank">says</a> this network of polymers is particularly durable: "Only this combination of all three components is both flexible and stiff and therefore strong." </p><p> As with any new material, a lot of testing must be conducted. They don't foresee this hydrogel being implanted into human bodies for at least three years. The next step is to test it out in sheep. </p><p>Still, this is an exciting step forward in the rehabilitation of one of our trickiest joints. Given the potential reward, the wait is worth it. </p><p><span></span>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
What would it be like to experience the 4th dimension?
- 10-15% of people visiting emergency rooms eventually develop symptoms of long-lasting PTSD.
- Early treatment is available but there's been no way to tell who needs it.
- Using clinical data already being collected, machine learning can identify who's at risk.
70 data points and machine learning
Image source: Creators Collective/Unsplash
Image source: Külli Kittus/Unsplash