What does the organic label mean?
Marion Nestle is a consumer activist, nutritionist, and academic who specializes in the politics of food and dietary choice. Nestle received her BA, PhD, and MPH from the University of California, Berkeley. In 1988, Nestle was appointed Chair of New York University’s Steinhardt School of Nutrition, Food Studies, and Public Health. She held that position until 2004, when she became the Paulette Goddard Professor in the same department.
Nestle is the author of numerous books, including "Food Politics," which explored the way corporations influence our nutritional choices, and "What to Eat," an survey of how to navigate the modern American supermarket. Aside from her books and teaching, Nestle writes a popular blog for the Atlantic Food Channel.
Question: What does the “organic” label mean?
Marion Nestle: Organic is not a matter of belief. Organic is codified, regulated, and its definition is established by the Department of Agriculture. So in the United States organic means vegetable crops that are produced under conditions in which there is no fertilizers, no artificial pesticides, and none of those kind of inputs. And they’re not genetically modified, or radiated, or fertilized with sewage sludge. Very clear definition. Animals must be fed organic feed.
They must be allowed access to the outdoors. And there are some other rules that . . . that define that. And in order for a company to get a certified organic seal on their product, they must follow those rules and be inspected to make sure they follow those rules. And almost everybody that I know who is involved in the organic industry says the rules are followed, there’s very little cheating, and that in fact the system is pretty tight in following the rules.
The big question is whether those rules make any sense or not; and whether they’re good enough, strong enough, and meaningful enough, with the most obvious loophole being about animals having access to the outdoors. The rule doesn’t say they have to be outdoors. The rule just says they have to have access to the outdoors. That’s a loophole.
January 18, 2008
Nestle discusses the standards - and the loopholes.
A few traditions in the Roman Catholic Church can be traced back to pagan cults, rites, and deities.
- The Catholic rite of Holy Communion parallels pre-Christian Greco-Roman and Egyptian rituals that involved eating the body and blood of a god.
- A number of Catholic holidays and myths, such as Christmas, Easter, and Mardi Gras, graph onto the timeline of pre-Christian fertility festivals.
- The Catholic practice of praying to saints has been called "de-facto idolatry" and even a relic of goddess worship.
A pragmatic approach to fixing an imbalanced system.
- Intentional or not, certain inequalities are inherent in a digital economy that is structured and controlled by a few corporations that don't represent the interests or the demographics of the majority.
- While concern and anger are valid reactions to these inequalities, UCLA professor Ramesh Srinivasan also sees it as an opportunity to take action.
- Srinivasan says that the digital economy can be reshaped to benefit the 99 percent if we protect laborers in the gig economy, get independent journalists involved with the design of algorithmic news systems, support small businesses, and find ways that groups that have been historically discriminated against can be a part of these solutions.