The Man Who Used to Have HIV
Sonia Arrison is a futurist and policy analyst who has studied the impact of new technologies on society for more than a decade. A Senior Fellow at the California-based Pacific Research Institute(PRI) and a columnist for TechNewsWorld, she is author of two previous books as well as numerous PRI studies on technology issues. A frequent media contributor and guest, her work has appeared in many publications including CBS MarketWatch, CNN, Los Angeles Times, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, and USA Today. She was also the host of a radio show called "digital dialogue" on the Voice America network and has been a repeat guest on National Public Radio, Tech TV, and CNN's Headline News.
Often asked for advice on technology issues, Sonia has given testimony and served as an expert witness for various government committees such as the Congressional Advisory Commission on Electronic Commerce and the California Commission on Internet Political Practices. She is an instructor for California’s Command College and serves on the Board of Trustees for Singularity University.
Prior to joining PRI in 1999, Arrison focused on Canadian-U.S. regulatory and political issues at the Donner Canadian Foundation. She also worked at the Fraser Institute in Vancouver, B.C., where she specialized in regulatory policy and privatization. She received her BA from the University of Calgary and an MA from the University of British Columbia.
Her forthcoming book, 100 Plus (Basic Books, Sept. 2011), considers the social, economic and cultural impacts of a significant increase in human lifespan and makes the case for strongly supporting the development of longevity science and technology.
Sonia Arrison: So we’re at the cusp of a longevity revolution. Biology has become an engineering project. Just like computer programs have ones and zeroes, the human body has a code too. It’s made up of the A, C, T & G of DNA. And scientists are learning how to reverse engineer that - things like tissue engineering, gene therapy and other types of personalized medicine that are going to allow people to live longer and healthier lives.
There’s only ever been one person in the world who has ever been cured of AIDS. And that’s Timothy Brown. And he was cured because he got a bone marrow transplant from somebody who had a genetic mutation that doesn’t allow AIDS to proliferate in the body. And so researchers are now working on how they can create that genetic tweak in other people who have AIDS so that they can cure AIDS.
Gene therapy for the last decade has had trouble because it’s not – it wasn’t easy to do before. Researchers have made a lot of progress in making it safer and easier to do. Dr. Carl June at the University of Pennsylvania has been working on making the tweaks to T-cells to try to cure AIDS. He actually just had a really exciting announcement recently where he used gene therapy to cure leukemia. What he did was he took out some of the immune cells from the cancer patients, tweaked them – the T-cells, he tweaked them so that they would notice cancer as an infection because the problem with cancer is that your body doesn’t realize that it’s a foreign invader because it’s part of your system and it doesn’t attack it. And so what Dr. June did was he tweaked the immune cells of these patients so that they would notice the cancer and took them out and he did that in the lab. Then he reinjected them into the patients and the patients got huge fevers and reacted essentially as if they had a big infection. And after a couple of weeks, all of their cancer was gone because their immune systems had fought it off. And so that’s one example of how scientists might be able to recode our systems to fight off diseases.
Sometimes it can take a long time to go from the lab to widespread use in society. For instance, tissue engineering is already here. I mean, scientists have the ability to grow brand new human organs like tracheas and bladders and blood vessels in the lab. It can be done with your own adult stem cells. it’s not in widespread use right now. And how long will that take? You know, that’s up to the regulators and not only that, and training doctors to learn how to use these techniques. And so it does actually take – take a long time.
There are so many advances going on right now in biotechnology that are really – really have a wow factor, right? Like gene therapy to cure cancer and tissue engineering, growing brand new tracheas in the lab, also to cure cancer or to cure damage from infection. I mean, all these things that are going on and you see them once in the newspaper and you read it and you say, ah, that’s great and then you forget about it. But if you look around and you take all of those stories and you put them together as I did in one big chapter, you can see a real clear picture of how the future is going to change.
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Jonathan Fowler & Elizabeth Rodd
There are so many advances going on right now in biotechnology that really have a wow factor," says Arrison. "Gene therapy to cure cancer and tissue engineering, growing brand new tracheas in the lab, also to cure cancer or to cure damage from infection. You see them once in the newspaper and you say, ah, that’s great - and then you forget about it."
Here's the science of black holes, from supermassive monsters to ones the size of ping-pong balls.
- There's more than one way to make a black hole, says NASA's Michelle Thaller. They're not always formed from dead stars. For example, there are teeny tiny black holes all around us, the result of high-energy cosmic rays slamming into our atmosphere with enough force to cram matter together so densely that no light can escape.
- CERN is trying to create artificial black holes right now, but don't worry, it's not dangerous. Scientists there are attempting to smash two particles together with such intensity that it creates a black hole that would live for just a millionth of a second.
- Thaller uses a brilliant analogy involving a rubber sheet, a marble, and an elephant to explain why different black holes have varying densities. Watch and learn!
- Bonus fact: If the Earth became a black hole, it would be crushed to the size of a ping-pong ball.
Protected animals are feared to be headed for the black market.
In a breakthrough for nuclear fusion research, scientists at China's Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) reactor have produced temperatures necessary for nuclear fusion on Earth.
- The EAST reactor was able to heat hydrogen to temperatures exceeding 100 million degrees Celsius.
- Nuclear fusion could someday provide the planet with a virtually limitless supply of clean energy.
- Still, scientists have many other obstacles to pass before fusion technology becomes a viable energy source.
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