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The Importance of Succession Planning
Professor Bower has also been active in the development of various institutions and programs. Between 1968 and 1973 he helped establish the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Vienna, Austria. In 1978, he founded the Program for Senior Managers in Government at Harvard’s JFK School of Government; and in 1995 he founded the General Manager Program at Harvard Business School. Currently he is helping to build the new joint MBA-MPP degree program offered by the Business School and the Kennedy School of Government.
Joe Bower: In academia, in the beginning of\r\n the late ‘80’s and then into the ‘90’s, there was this idea being sold,\r\n particularly by organization economists that basically you could break \r\nup big firms and create more value because the corporate offices of \r\nthese things was only overhead. And that seemed wrong because actually \r\nif you were – if you believed in markets, you looked around the world \r\nand you saw an awful lot of big multi-business firms and they were \r\nprospering. So, I thought I would spend some time exploring what I \r\ncalled corporate value added. And I did that and all of a sudden it \r\noccurred to me that one of the things that was most closely associated \r\nwith the creation of real value and sustained over long periods of time \r\nwas management of succession. And as soon as you say it, it’s pretty \r\nobvious that if you can continue to have good leadership, that’s going \r\nto be very important to a company, or to a nation for that matter. When\r\n we study history, we see the same thing.
So, I did begin to \r\nexplore and I studied CEO succession and that led to the book, because \r\nthat’s the way academics communicate once they’ve got a body of \r\nknowledge.
Question: What's in it for a current CEO to \r\nthink about his or her successor?
Joe Bower: Well, one\r\n of the critical findings was that the way you manage succession is \r\nbasically the way you manage the company and companies that have \r\nproblems with succession usually also begin to have problems with their \r\nbusiness. The two tend to go together. Companies that are able to \r\nmanage succession well have been investing in the development of leaders\r\n of their people at the same time that they’re developing businesses. \r\nIn any significant period of time, like several years—5, 10, it’s very, \r\nvery hard to have a successful business without having great people \r\nrunning it. This is a tough world that we live in today, lots of \r\ncompetition. So, that emerged very clearly as one finding, and then \r\nthere are lots of elements, which we can talk about if you want as to \r\nwhat it means to manage a company.
Question: How can \r\nboards evaluate candidates to succeed a CEO?
Joe Bower:\r\n Management succession begins with who you’re recruiting, how you bring \r\nthem on board in the company, the career paths that are available for \r\nthem, the training they get, the mentoring they get, the way in which \r\nthey are developed. So, a critical question that comes up all the time \r\nis: "We have a critical job that’s opening up that needs to be dealt \r\nwith. Who do we put in?" In the world you just described, the simplest\r\n thing is to find the person who can probably do the best job and put \r\nhim or her in at that point. But that’s not what you really want to \r\ndo. You really also want to say, who has a good crack at doing that \r\njob, but would really grow because they had done it? And that’s the \r\nstory that is often used on this point is that of the career of Jeff \r\nImmelt. He was brought in to turn around the home appliance business \r\nduring a period of a big recall, and it was a nightmare, but he often \r\nsays in discussing this that he’d never be the CEO of GE had he not had \r\nthat really tough particular experience.
Question: What\r\n is an "inside outsider?"
Joe Bower: An inside \r\noutsider is someone who is growing up within the organization in just \r\nthe way I’ve been describing. He was recruited well, was developed and \r\nis identified as having potential and given more responsibility, but \r\nsomehow has managed to also maintain a sense of where the world is going\r\n and what is going to have to change in the company if it’s going to be \r\nsuccessful in the next period. Typically insiders are great, but by the \r\ntime they get up to the very top, they’ve drunk the Kool-Aid and they \r\nreally believe in their organization to the extent that they don’t see \r\nthe need for radical change. They know certain things have to change to\r\n do this, do that, and they tend to see things in terms of what you \r\ncould do step-by-step. But the world is changing very, very, very fast \r\nand that’s not enough. And it’s often critical to see that real change \r\nis needed.
That’s what you look for. I mean, typically we know,\r\n we see them in any organization they’ve been with. They tend to be \r\nsmart, they tend to be difficult, they don’t necessarily play well with \r\nothers. So, they need some work. But that’s what it’s all about. When\r\n you find those people and you can give them the management skills they \r\nneed to budget well, to create teams, to lead teams, those are the \r\nthings you can really help people with. It’s very hard to give them \r\nthat breadth of perspective, that maverick's willingness to see \r\nsomething and go after it even though no one else necessarily sees it. \r\nAnd in organizations, you look for people like that and you try to \r\ndevelop them.
Question: What if the new CEO comes from\r\n the outside?
Joe Bower: Obviously a lot do and some \r\nsucceed. Generally, if you’re going outside, it means that the \r\norganization has failed. It has failed. Either its performance is so \r\nbad that it’s clear that within the organization there isn’t someone who\r\n can see what needs to change. Or they simply haven’t developed, it may\r\n be successful but for reasons as you have described there is a strong \r\nleader that has never developed others, there’s no one to take over who \r\nhas the real strength. A lot of school systems need change and they \r\ncan’t get it from within because people from within don’t have the skill\r\n set. One of the problems in universities is when you promote from \r\nwithin; very often you’re just promoting a good department chairman, or \r\nworse, just a good professor. Very few schools have a management \r\ndevelopment program. We at Harvard Business School work very hard to \r\nmake sure that those faculty who have the talent get a chance to \r\nadminister over a decade so that when the time comes to pick a Dean, \r\nthere are usually four or five people who have been running things and \r\nwe can get a sense of whether they would be a good dean.
Recorded April 1, 2010
Why an "inside outsider" might be the next person most suited to take over a company.
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Gender and sexual minority populations are experiencing rising anxiety and depression rates during the pandemic.
- Anxiety and depression rates are spiking in the LGBTQ+ community, and especially in individuals who hadn't struggled with those issues in the past.
- Overall, depression increased by an average PHQ-9 score of 1.21 and anxiety increased by an average GAD-7 score of 3.11.
- The researchers recommended that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.
Study findings<p>For the study, <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11606-020-05970-4" target="_blank">published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine</a><em>, </em>Flentje and her team evaluated survey responses from nearly 2,300 individuals who identified as being in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) community. Most of the participants were white, while nearly 19 percent identified as a racial or ethnic minority. Multiple genders were represented with cisgender women (27.2 percent) and men (24.6 percent) making up a majority of the participants. Sixty-three percent had been assigned female at birth. For the most part, participants identified their sexual orientations as queer (40.3 percent), gay (36.5 percent), and bisexual (30.3 percent).</p><p>The JGIM study participants were recruited from the 18,000-participant <a href="https://pridestudy.org/" target="_blank">PRIDE Study</a> (Population Research in Identity and Disparities for Equality), which is the first large-scale, long-term national study focusing on American adults who identify as LGBTQ+. It conducts annual questionnaires to understand factors related to health and disease in this population. </p><p>Participants filled out an annual questionnaire (starting in June 2019) and a COVID-19 impact survey this past spring. Flentje noted that on an individual level, some people may not have experienced a big change in anxiety or depression levels, but for others there was. Overall, depression increased by a <a href="https://patient.info/doctor/patient-health-questionnaire-phq-9" target="_blank">PHQ-9 score</a> of 1.21, putting it at 8.31 on average. Anxiety went up by a <a href="https://www.mdcalc.com/gad-7-general-anxiety-disorder-7" target="_blank">GAD-7</a> score of 3.11 to an average of 8.89. Interestingly, the average PHQ-9 scores for those who screened positive for depression at the first 2019 survey decreased by 1.08. Those who screened negative for depression saw their PHQ-9 scores increase by 2.17 on average. As for anxiety, researchers detected no GAD-7 change among the study participants who screened positive for anxiety in the first survey, but did see an overall increase of 3.93 among those who had initially been evaluated as negative for the disorder. </p>
Risks among gender and sexual minorities<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="fc3fd1ae68b77bbbf58a6995638d6d65"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/EnUqDjCqg0A?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>The LGBTQ+ community is a vulnerable population to mental health concerns because of their fear of stigmatization and previous discriminatory experiences.</p> <p>Previous research by the Human Rights Campaign has found "that LGBTQ Americans are more likely than the <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/general+population/" target="_blank">general population</a> to live in poverty and lack access to adequate medical care, paid <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/medical+leave/" target="_blank">medical leave</a>, and basic necessities during the pandemic," said researcher Tari Hanneman, director of the health and aging program at the campaign.</p> <p>"Therefore, it is not surprising to see this increase in anxiety and depression among this population," Hanneman said in the release. "This study highlights the need for <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/health+care+professionals/" target="_blank">health care professionals</a> to support, affirm and provide <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/critical+care/" target="_blank">critical care</a> for the LGBTQ community to manage and maintain their mental health, as well as their physical health, during this pandemic."</p>
What should health care providers do?<p>The authors of the study recommend that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders in members of that community—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.</p><p>As cases of COVID-19 continue to mount, the sustained social distancing, potential isolation, economic precariousness, and personal illness, grief, and loss are bound to have increased and varied impacts on mental health. Effective treatments may include individual therapy and medications as well as more large-scale coronavirus support programs like peer-led groups and mindfulness practices. </p><p>"It will be important to find out what happens over time and to identify who is most at risk, so we can be sure to roll out public health interventions to support the mental health of our communities in the best and most effective ways," said Flentje.</p>
What we know about black holes is both fascinating and scary.
- When it comes to black holes, science simultaneously knows so much and so little, which is why they are so fascinating. Focusing on what we do know, this group of astronomers, educators, and physicists share some of the most incredible facts about the powerful and mysterious objects.
- A black hole is so massive that light (and anything else it swallows) can't escape, says Bill Nye. You can't see a black hole, theoretical physicists Michio Kaku and Christophe Galfard explain, because it is too dark. What you can see, however, is the distortion of light around it caused by its extreme gravity.
- Explaining one unsettling concept from astrophysics called spaghettification, astronomer Michelle Thaller says that "If you got close to a black hole there would be tides over your body that small that would rip you apart into basically a strand of spaghetti that would fall down the black hole."
The team caught a glimpse of a process that takes 18,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years.
- In Italy, a team of scientists is using a highly sophisticated detector to hunt for dark matter.
- The team observed an ultra-rare particle interaction that reveals the half-life of a xenon-124 atom to be 18 sextillion years.
- The half-life of a process is how long it takes for half of the radioactive nuclei present in a sample to decay.
A new study looks at what would happen to human language on a long journey to other star systems.
- A new study proposes that language could change dramatically on long space voyages.
- Spacefaring people might lose the ability to understand the people of Earth.
- This scenario is of particular concern for potential "generation ships".