from the world's big
The End of Home Ownership
Richard Florida is author of the global best-seller "The Rise of the Creative Class." His latest books are the "The Great Reset," and "The Rise of the Creative Class Revisited," a revised and expanded tenth anniversary edition of his classic work.
He is also the author of "The Flight of the Creative Class" and "Cities and the Creative Class." His previous books, especially "The Breakthrough Illusion" and "Beyond Mass Production," paved the way for his provocative looks at how creativity is revolutionizing the global economy.
Florida is a regular correspondent for the Atlantic Monthly and a regular columnist for The Globe and Mail. He has written for The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, The Boston Globe, The Economist, and The Harvard Business Review. He has been featured as an expert on MSNBC, CNN, BBC, NPR and CBS, to name just a few.
Richard Florida: Well, it’s \r\nfascinatingly interesting to me about, that the role of home ownership \r\nand housing in the American dream. And in the book I say, “You know, \r\nthere are really two American dreams.” Actually a student said this to \r\nme, he said, “You know, Professor Florida”—he wasn’t American, a Latin \r\nAmerican guy— said, “I read somewhere that the American dream is about \r\neconomic opportunity, but elsewhere I see it’s about owning a home, \r\ncould those two things be in conflict?”
One of the things we’ve \r\nalways done really well in America is during these resetting periods, \r\nduring these crises, these remaking periods, of course, we’ve changed \r\nour infrastructure. Right, we build railroads during the first one, and \r\nsubways and cable cars. During the second one, we built interstate \r\nhighways, new power distribution systems and so forth, new ways of \r\neducating ourselves, mass public education early on, universities later.\r\n But we’ve always been able to change our housing system to suit our \r\nneeds.
During the first great reset in the 1870s, in the '80s, \r\nwe moved lots of people off farms and into cities. Many of them were \r\nrenters, some were owners, but that shift in our population and the \r\nshift in the way we house people from small, farming villages to major \r\nurban centers, was a big part of our growth. And then after World War II\r\n with suburbanization, we created a nation of homeowners. About 40 \r\npercent of Americans, maybe a little more, were homeowners before the \r\nwar, after the war it went up to 60, and then at the pinnacle, nearly \r\nhit 70 percent.
What we’re finding now though, is that era of \r\nhome ownership, which so drive the suburban economic machine—really, \r\nwhen you think about it, it fed those industries. The auto industry, the\r\n steel industry, the chemical industry, the appliance industry, all \r\nthose, all those industries that drove American greatness, were really \r\nfacilitated by suburbanization. You bought the home, you had to fill it \r\nup with appliances, you had to buy a car, and then a second car, and \r\nthen a car for the kids. So it drove the economic machine. Now that’s \r\nbroken, I think.
And it’s actually something I write about in \r\nthe book, but I’ve been studying in great detail with my research team \r\nat the Martin Prosperity Institute very closely since. It seems to me \r\nthat we went overboard in our approach to home ownership and when we \r\nactually looked at the data... This is so ironic, places with the \r\nhighest levels of home ownership have low rates of growth; they tend to \r\nbe older, lagging cities with older economic structures; they tend to be\r\n less innovative; they tend to have lower levels of human capital, of \r\ncreative, economic activity; lower wages, lower incomes; and the people \r\nthere have lower levels of well-being.
The ones that have lower \r\nhome ownership, they’re stronger economies, they’re more innovative, \r\nthey’re higher wages, higher incomes. And I thought about this and it’s \r\nnot only that those cities are more expensive, right? Los Angeles and \r\nNew York and San Francisco and Seattle and Boston, they’re not only more\r\n expensive, so obviously fewer people can afford houses. Actually by \r\nhaving a lower level of homeownership, and that’s around 50 or 55 \r\npercent, where the big, the cities that have a lot have 80. It actually \r\nmakes them quite fast and flexible. And I find this really interesting. \r\nIf you lose your job in Detroit or Cleveland, you own your house: you’re\r\n stuck. You can’t even move to another part of Detroit or Cleveland for a\r\n job, never mind to a place that might have more economic opportunity on\r\n the east or west coast. You’re stuck and you’re stuck with that house \r\nand you can’t get rid of it and you have to pay for it.
If you \r\nwork in New York or Los Angeles or San Francisco and you lose your job, \r\nfirst thing you can do is downshift to a cheaper apartment, and if you \r\nneed to move to a new region, when your lease ends, you can up and go. \r\nSo I actually believe, the Urban Land Institute says we’re falling in \r\nhome ownership. We’re going to come down to about, I think, they think, \r\nanywhere to about 62 percent, I think we’re going to go a little lower. I\r\n think a nice balance is about 55 percent, with the rest of the people \r\nrenting. I do think we need to reinvent rental housing, though. I think \r\nthe kind of rental housing we have now, where you go find a landlord on \r\nCraig’s List and you get a place and they don’t fix the windows and the \r\ndishwasher breaks and you’re doing it; that’s crazy. I think with all \r\nthe condos that are vacant, in fact, we’re even seeing this in Miami. \r\nAnd I see this when I go to Miami, it’s actually my cycling route. I \r\ncycle down through the city and through the City of Miami, into Key \r\nBiscayne. You see all the condo towers that went bankrupt, that were \r\ndistress sales, now being turned to rental. And what’s interesting is \r\nyou’re renting from a real rental agency, the housing is nice and high \r\nquality, but it’s very affordable, lots of people are streaming back \r\ninto downtown, empty nesters, young people, people with families, more \r\nstreet-level activity.
I even imagine something more than that, \r\nwhere you could sign up with Acme Rental Company, or XYZ Rental Company,\r\n and if your job changes in New York, or San Francisco, Toronto where I \r\nlive, and you want to be closer to where you work, you can switch \r\napartments. Or if you transfer to the West Coast or the Midwest or \r\nwherever it is, San Francisco, Chicago, you can basically be part of \r\nthat rental company’s units there. Some way, and I think with the excess\r\n inventory—according to one analysis, we now in the United States have 8\r\n years, 103 months, of excess housing inventory; well, somebody’s got to\r\n do something with that. If companies over the course of the reset in an\r\n entrepreneurial fashion begin to roll that up, begin to provide mass \r\nrental housing, if you will, and what gives me—I talk to a lot of \r\ndevelopers and I speak to developers' forums, I was just at the Urban \r\nLand Institute: multi-family housing is one place people are actually \r\nprofitable in.
But the thing is, every time we’ve changed in \r\nAmerica, had a crisis, we’ve reinvented our housing system, and our \r\nhousing finance system, and even now, I’m talking to public policy \r\nmakers and decision makers in Washington who are really thinking this \r\nthrough, who are saying, you know, "We have gone overboard with home \r\nownership, we have to dial back, and how do we reconfigure our housing \r\nand housing finance institutions and policies to encourage a better, \r\nmore flexible form of housing, which is more in sync with the needs of \r\nan advanced economy.
So I actually think, one of the hopeful \r\nrays of optimism I see, I think the United States may be out in front of\r\n this and it may be one of the first countries that is really rethinking\r\n what would be a housing, mortgage... housing finance system, rent-own \r\nsystem for a 21st Century flexible and mobile economy.
Question:\r\n How can the government respond to the foreclosure crisis most \r\neffectively?
Richard Florida: Most urban economists \r\nand smart housing economists and thinker urbanists are on this. We have \r\nto stop the unbelievable subsidy that we’ve provided for single-family \r\nhome ownership. When you add up the tax incentives, the financial \r\nincentives, the subsidies to the secondary mortgage market institutions,\r\n the freeway subsidies, the highway subsidies, the infrastructure \r\nsubsidies, it’s billions, hundreds of billions and trillions of dollars.\r\n And we have to stop that, we have to make our housing system more \r\nreflective of a market. And I think our public policy... I don’t want to\r\n say it has to favor rental, I don’t think we need a massive public \r\npolicy. We just have to stop the madness in subsidizing home ownership \r\nand causing people, some people to make bad decisions. One of the things\r\n that brought on the crisis is there were "evil people on Wall Street \r\ndoing all these bad things and everybody has the pitchforks out and \r\nthey’re after them," but there are a lot of Americans who made really \r\nbad decisions. I find it just unbelievable how people would go and buy a\r\n house with nothing down and that they couldn’t afford. That’s not the \r\nway my parents brought me up. I live in Canada, I had to put 25 percent \r\ndown, and Lord knows, if I tried to get up and walk away from my house \r\nin Toronto, they’d attach my wages for the rest of my life. I can’t just\r\n jingle mail the keys back in.
So I think we do need a system \r\nthat’s more responsible and a system that doesn’t create those crazy \r\nincentives. I tell the story, it was the "60 Minutes" show with this \r\nwoman from Miami and they were asking her, she said she had five \r\napartments that were under water, five condos. And they said, “How did \r\nyou get five condos under water?” She said, “Well, only as a side thing,\r\n I’m an acupuncturist.” I mean, it’s unbelievable that a woman who’s an \r\nacupuncturist could walk in and have mortgages on five multi-million \r\ndollar condos and then say, “Well, I didn’t even think about the \r\nmortgages, that was a sideline, I do acupuncture.” Who would give \r\nsomebody like that a loan?
Now that madness has stopped, \r\nobviously. I think just thinking about a system that’s sensible... but \r\nobviously one of the big points of “The Great Reset,” is this: We can’t \r\ngrow our economy, we can’t build new industries, whether that’s \r\nsoftware, high tech, biotech, modern health care, gene therapy, we can’t\r\n move, build new industries and entertainment in media and the \r\nexperiences, performance, we know a lot of the money to be made in the \r\nperformances, people seeing performances, consuming live entertainment, \r\neven buying art, all of these experiential things are personal \r\ndevelopment, lifelong education, holistic health. If we’re spending, the\r\n average is about 55 percent of our income for housing and energy and \r\ntransportation. And in some cities, it’s 75 percent plus and then you \r\nadd in education costs, you add in health care costs, no wonder people \r\nwent into debt! How are you going to build the industries of the future \r\nif you have no money to buy that stuff with?
So one of the \r\nthings “The Great Reset” is saying is that during the Depression and \r\nactually before that, we made agriculture a lot more efficient, we made \r\nfood a lot cheaper. Herbert Hoover said "we have to have a car in every \r\ngarage, a chicken in every pot." In order to get the car in every \r\ngarage, we had to make agriculture cheaper, we employed most of our \r\npeople in agriculture, now we employ 1 percent of our people in \r\nagriculture. Same thing with housing. We still have to house ourselves, \r\nwe still need transportation, we still need cars, but they can’t consume\r\n 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 percent of household income. We need to free up \r\nspace, free up budget, free up demand. That’s what that new way of life \r\nhas to be. Less expensive, more efficient housing, less expensive, more \r\nefficient transit, less expensive, more efficient energy, that’s going \r\nto open up the space to grow a new knowledge and create a new economy \r\nand really power our growth into the future.
Forget the "American Dream" for home ownership. We need a system for a 21st Century that fits our flexible and mobile economy.
Sallie Krawcheck and Bob Kulhan will be talking money, jobs, and how the pandemic will disproportionally affect women's finances.
Want help raising your kids? Spend more time at church, says new study.
- Religious people tend to have more children than secular people, but why remains unknown.
- A new study suggests that the social circles provided by regular church going make raising kids easier.
- Conversely, having a large secular social group made women less likely to have children.
Be fruitful and multiply<p>Scientists in the United Kingdom collected data on more than 13,000 mothers and their children. Most of them were religious, but 12 percent were not. The data included information on their church habits, social networks, number of children, and the scores those children achieved on a standardized test.</p><p>In line with previous findings that religious women have more children than secular women in industrialized countries, a connection between at least monthly church attendance and fertility was confirmed. However, religious parents showed they could avoid the pitfalls that having more children can bring. </p><p>Typically, more children in a family leads to reduced cognitive ability and height in each <a href="https://academic.oup.com/ije/article/37/6/1408/729795" target="_blank">child</a>. Some studies find that children do less well in school for each <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-016-0471-0" target="_blank">additional sibling they have</a>. This makes a kind of intuitive sense, as parents with more children would have to divide their time, energy, and resources among more people as families expand. One would expect that the larger families would also lead to things like lower test scores. </p><p>Despite the expectation, the children of religious parents didn't have lower scores on standardized tests. There were small positive relationships between the size of the mother's social network, the number of co-religionists helping out, and the children's test scores. However, this association was small, didn't show up in all of the testings, and was unrelated to other variables. </p> These effects might be explained by the size and helpfulness of the social networks around the more religious. Women who went to church at least once a month had more extensive social networks than those who never go or who attend yearly. These social networks of co-religious people mean that there are more people to turn to for help with child-rearing, a point also demonstrated in the data. The amount of aid women got from their fellow churchgoers was also associated with a higher fertility rate. <br> <br> Conversely, an extensive social network was associated with fewer children for secular women. This finding is in line with <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1207/s15327957pspr0904_5" target="_blank">previous studies</a> and suggests that the social networks comprised of co-religious individuals differ from those found elsewhere.
So, how quickly should I join a local religious group?<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="6RrmYM8M" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="9eb4740a7d1e10108a75fd2ed627a90f"> <div id="botr_6RrmYM8M_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/6RrmYM8M-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/6RrmYM8M-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/6RrmYM8M-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div> <p>The study is not without its faults, and more investigations into the relationship between fertility, childcare, ritual, and social networks are needed.</p><p>These findings all show correlation, not causation. Though it might be said the results point towards causation, various alternative interpretations of the data are apparent. The authors note that most religions are explicitly pro-natal. It is possible that religious women have internalized these values and simply choose to have more children than secular women do.</p><p>This idea is similar to a potential interpretation of why large social networks have the opposite effect for secular women. The authors suggest that, in some cases, these more extensive social networks are associated with work and exert an anti-natal influence. Again, the people who build such networks may be people unlikely to have large families under any circumstances.</p><p>However, the researchers' hypothesis endured. The help religious women get from their church-based social networks allows them to have larger families than those who lack these support systems. In some instances, these support systems also prevent the adverse effects of larger families. </p>
The community religion offers<p>As we've mentioned <a href="https://bigthink.com/culture-religion/what-is-secular-humanism" target="_blank">before</a>, religion offers a community, and a community provides social capital. As religion continues to decline in the West, the social bonds of faith communities that used to tie social communities together begin to decay. However, as has been noted by a variety of observers for the last few decades, fewer and fewer new organizations appear ready to replace religion as a source of community in our lives.</p><p>While many different organizations might offer social support that religion once provided the whole of western society, this study shows that different social circles can differently affect the people in them. This finding must be considered by those trying to find new communities to join or the authors of future research. </p><p>The community offered by religious groups provides real benefits to those who join them. As this study shows, having the support network religious community offers allows some parents to avoid pitfalls that bedevil those lacking similar support. It suggests that previous studies demonstrating that group ritual offers benefits like increased amounts of <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0956797612472910" target="_blank">group trust</a> and <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1069397103037002003" target="_blank">cooperation</a> are onto something and that those benefits have a variety of applications. </p><p>While this study is not without its blind spots, it offers a strong starting point for further investigations into the nature of ritual in our modern lives and how local support networks remain vital in our increasingly globalized world. </p>
Health officials in China reported that a man was infected with bubonic plague, the infectious disease that caused the Black Death.
- The case was reported in the city of Bayannur, which has issued a level-three plague prevention warning.
- Modern antibiotics can effectively treat bubonic plague, which spreads mainly by fleas.
- Chinese health officials are also monitoring a newly discovered type of swine flu that has the potential to develop into a pandemic virus.
Bacteria under microscope
needpix.com<p>Today, bubonic plague can be treated effectively with antibiotics.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Unlike in the 14th century, we now have an understanding of how this disease is transmitted," Dr. Shanthi Kappagoda, an infectious disease physician at Stanford Health Care, told <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health-news/seriously-dont-worry-about-the-plague#Heres-how-the-plague-spreads" target="_blank">Healthline</a>. "We know how to prevent it — avoid handling sick or dead animals in areas where there is transmission. We are also able to treat patients who are infected with effective antibiotics, and can give antibiotics to people who may have been exposed to the bacteria [and] prevent them [from] getting sick."</p>
This plague patient is displaying a swollen, ruptured inguinal lymph node, or buboe.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention<p>Still, hundreds of people develop bubonic plague every year. In the U.S., a handful of cases occur annually, particularly in New Mexico, Arizona and Colorado, <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/plague/faq/index.html" target="_blank">where habitats allow the bacteria to spread more easily among wild rodent populations</a>. But these cases are very rare, mainly because you need to be in close contact with rodents in order to get infected. And though plague can spread from human to human, this <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health-news/seriously-dont-worry-about-the-plague#Heres-how-the-plague-spreads" target="_blank">only occurs with pneumonic plague</a>, and transmission is also rare.</p>
A new swine flu in China<p>Last week, researchers in China also reported another public health concern: a new virus that has "all the essential hallmarks" of a pandemic virus.<br></p><p>In a paper published in the <a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/06/23/1921186117" target="_blank">Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences</a>, researchers say the virus was discovered in pigs in China, and it descended from the H1N1 virus, commonly called "swine flu." That virus was able to transmit from human to human, and it killed an estimated 151,700 to 575,400 people worldwide from 2009 to 2010, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.</p>There's no evidence showing that the new virus can spread from person to person. But the researchers did find that 10 percent of swine workers had been infected by the virus, called G4 reassortant EA H1N1. This level of infectivity raises concerns, because it "greatly enhances the opportunity for virus adaptation in humans and raises concerns for the possible generation of pandemic viruses," the researchers wrote.
A neuroscientist argues that da Vinci shared a disorder with Picasso and Rembrandt.
- A neuroscientist at the City University of London proposes that Leonardo da Vinci may have had exotropia, allowing him to see the world with impaired depth perception.
- If true, it means that Da Vinci would have been able to see the images he wanted to paint as they would have appeared on a flat surface.
- The finding reminds us that sometimes looking at the world in a different way can have fantastic results.
The study<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xODc3Mjc2NS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY1MTA4MDg2NH0.T-98YvLjS9mUCQkgqHyV43Q7h_JIiubrev-Fp_0j4Pg/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C38%2C0%2C579&height=700" id="58346" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="674799ba34e115a2e9a3e94c366bfc26" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
The Virtuvian Man. Christopher Tyler suggests that Da Vinci used his own image as a template for the face in the drawing.
Vitruvian Man, by Leonardo da Vinci created c. 1480–1490<p><a href="https://www.city.ac.uk/people/academics/christopher-tyler" target="_blank">Professor Christopher Tyler</a> of the City University of London's optometry division analyzed six pieces of Renaissance art by or held to be images of Da Vinci, including the famous <em>Vitruvian Man. </em>By looking at the paintings, drawings, and statues and applying the same techniques optometrists use on patients, Tyler was able to conclude that the eyes of the men depicted were misaligned.</p><p> He concluded that, if the images he analyzed were truly reflective of how Da Vinci looked, that the great artist had a mild case of exotropia. </p>
How would this have helped him paint?<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="b221010aa7688734d4d6a41f0df5933f"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/j6F-sHhmfrY?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p><a href="https://shileyeye.ucsd.edu/faculty/shira-robbins" target="_blank">Shira Robbins</a>, a professor of ophthalmology at the University of California at San Diego, who was not involved with the project, explained to <em><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2018/10/19/leonardo-da-vincis-genius-may-be-rooted-in-a-common-eye-disorder-new-study-says/?utm_term=.d3f44ed91c16" target="_blank">The Washington Post</a> </em>how individuals with exotropia often turn to additional information to help understand the world around them:</p><blockquote>"What happens in some people is when they're only using one eye . . . they develop other cues besides traditional depth perception to understand where things are in space, looking at color and shadow in a way that most of us who use both eyes at a time don't really appreciate." </blockquote><p>Dr. Robbins agrees that, if the artworks analyzed accurately depict Da Vinci, then he probably had exotropia.</p><p>If Da Vinci did have a mild form of the condition, which would allow him to focus with both eyes when concentrating and with one when relaxed, Tyler asserts that the famed artist could have viewed the world in two or three dimensions at will, showing him the world exactly as he would need to recreate it on a flat surface. Quite the superpower for an artist.</p>
Does this mean Da Vinci would have been a hack if he had normal eyesight?<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xODc3MjY5NS9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyMjYwOTgxOH0.eSu3YBpCuaDj59-4lzSeZ1WgwtV2ETGiWHqczzW3how/img.png?width=980" id="9c323" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="edd4e9e9d9c1156a53242df6288d7cc0" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
A graph showing the difference in where each eye is focused for each painting, drawing, and statue used in the study. The larger the difference, the more pronounced the exotropia is in the image.<p>Not at all. What Dr. Tyler is suggesting is that the tendency of people who have exotropia to rely on using one eye to see the world and thereby lose some depth perception allowed Da Vinci to understand better how the three-dimensional objects in the world could be translated into a two-dimensional image on a canvas. This could account for some of Da Vinci's skill in depicting shadow and subtle changes in color, since he would have relied on these details to understand the world. <br><br>His polymathic brilliance extended far beyond art, and nobody is claiming that his ideas for flying machines, tanks, or <a href="http://www.da-vinci-inventions.com/davinci-inventions.aspx" target="_blank">other inventions </a>were at all influenced by a vision problem.</p>
How can we know this? He has been dead for five hundred years.<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c26fc51b0aebbcd6905593015fec79e5"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/LRAptNtN9-A?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>There are reasons to be cautious anytime we make claims about people who are long dead. In this case, we have the bonus problem that we aren't 100 percent sure that the images used are supposed to look like Da Vinci. </p><p> That is the major caveat of the idea; all of the images used as evidence of his condition are assumed to look like him. While some of the images, like the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_(Verrocchio)" target="_blank"><em>David</em> by Andrea del Verrocchio</a>, are generally agreed to be based on Leonardo the other pictures are claimed to be reflective of him based only on his statement that "[The soul] guides the painter's arm and makes him reproduce himself, since it appears to the soul that this is the best way to represent a human being." </p><p>Tyler also argues that the portraits he claims are based on Da Vinci share similarities with the images generally accepted to be portraits of him; including similar hair and facial features. This lends weight to the idea that the artist incorporated his own traits into his artwork, including his vision problem. </p><p>Leonardo da Vinci was undoubtedly one of the greatest geniuses of all time. If he had exotropia, then it was merely a minor addition to his artistic skills. It does, however, give us a literal example of how people who look at the world differently can use that vantage point to their advantage to create things we all can appreciate. </p>
The word "learning" opens up space for more people, places, and ideas.
- The terms 'education' and 'learning' are often used interchangeably, but there is a cultural connotation to the former that can be limiting. Education naturally links to schooling, which is only one form of learning.
- Gregg Behr, founder and co-chair of Remake Learning, believes that this small word shift opens up the possibilities in terms of how and where learning can happen. It also becomes a more inclusive practice, welcoming in a larger, more diverse group of thinkers.
- Post-COVID, the way we think about what learning looks like will inevitably change, so it's crucial to adjust and begin building the necessary support systems today.