LeapFrog is the world’s first investment fund to focus on the insurance needs of low-income and financially excluded people. Launched by President Clinton and hailed by The Wall Street Journal and Private Equity International, LeapFrog has opened a new frontier for social investment and microfinance. Andy founded LeapFrog in January 2007, inspired by his extensive experience enabling entrepreneurs in emerging markets, and then co-built the firm with a team of former CEOs and pioneers in emerging markets insurance. Andy is a former Managing Director of Ashoka, which has financed and connected 2000 social entrepreneurs in over 60 countries. He worked with both Grameen and BRAC, the world's largest microfinance institutions, to market their social ventures. He also co-founded Kuper Research, which designed The Daily Sun, now sub-Saharan Africa's largest newspaper, with 5 million daily readers. Born and raised in South Africa, Andy is a serial social entrepreneur and author of books including Democracy Beyond Borders (Oxford) and Global Responsibilities (Routledge). He holds a PhD from Cambridge, where he was supervised by Nobel laureate Amartya Sen, who first stimulated Andy’s interest in market-based solutions to poverty.
Question: What is the future of social entrepreneurship?
Andrew Kuper: Social entrepreneurship is an incredibly exciting movement. It was spawned by Bill Drayton about 30 years ago who is an incredibly visionary entrepreneur who had the idea that you could really do venture capital for the social sector. So you could pick visionary entrepreneurs committed to systematic social change who had ethical fiber, who were committed to social impact, who were innovative and you could back them, give them some resources and a global support system that allowed them to achieve their goals whether it was in environment, education, healthcare, immigration, multiple different kinds of social impact and then this movement really rocketed and what allowed it to do was both the vision and the power of Ashoka and it offshoots like Endeavor and Acumen and other wonderful organizations that supports social entrepreneurs but it was also the massive growth of the social sector.
So the nonprofits; if you look at the numbers, they’re dramatic. Between 1980 and 2005, you basically have the number of nonprofits in Brazil, go from, I believe it was something like 5,000 to nearly a million, you had in the US, the number of nonprofits go from around 400,000 to 1.2 million so you have this massive burgeoning of the social sector. It suddenly become a much bigger space with much more impact and if you think about it historically, this is interesting because in the 19th Century, we had the Industrial Revolution, in the 18th and 19th Century. At the beginning of the 20th Century and with the world wars, we had the massive growth of the state so you had the burgeoning of the state but the social sector was left behind and we’ve had in the past decades is a massive growth of that sector, almost an Industrial Revolution of that sector.
Now that creates large opportunities because you not only have large numbers of organizations but organizations that can work together and have a division of labor where you achieve much more. Now, what’s the next way for social entrepreneurship, well, I’m particularly excited by things that go up the next level so it helps organizations to work together very effectively whether it’s collaborative technology architectures, whether it’s organizations like Ashoka, Endeavor, and Acumen that helped entrepreneurs to find commonalities, Ashoka of course is a group collaboration, whether it’s financing vehicles that goes to the next level, that back a whole lot of different companies and try to see or organizations and see the synergies between those.
And my company’s and organization’s language is the other really exciting next stage. I think we’re going to see a whole bunch of hybrid entities going from 0% returns, in other words, straight charity and that’s appropriate because why… if you’re trying to end slavery, you’re not going to try to do it on a profitable basis, that is a really charitable activity right through to highly profitable areas like microinsurance and microcredit where you can do and other kinds of social business like Grameen Phone, the mobile phone company. All of these can be hugely profitable and yet hugely impactful and I want to see a complete range that goes minus 10% plus 5% plus 20% plus 60% across the board that works. Now, I happen to be most excited myself about the areas that really bring profit and purpose together and the reason that I’m really excited about that is if you could do something that is hugely socially impactful so it’s quality really helps people with the products you’re selling and at the same time, it’s highly profitable, it’s massively scalable.
And I’m frankly obsessed with the idea that there are four billion poor people out there, we don’t have time to waste, we have to do things at scale, so I want to find mechanisms to really allow for massive, rapid scaling that has a profound impact on the poor and that I think is the most exciting arrowhead of social entrepreneurship right now.
Recorded on: May 1, 2009
The president of LeapFrog Investments discusses the latest trends in the vast movement known as social entrepreneurship.
Swiss researchers identify new dangers of modern cocaine.
- Cocaine cut with anti-worming adulterant levamisole may cause brain damage.
- Levamisole can thin out the prefrontal cortex and affect cognitive skills.
- Government health programs should encourage testing of cocaine for purity.
Pfizer's partnerships strengthen their ability to deliver vaccines in developing countries.
- Pfizer is helping to drive the UN's sustainable development goals through partnerships.
Civil discourse has fallen to an all time low.
The question that the American populace needs to ask itself now is: how do we fix it?
Discursive fundamentals need to be taught to preserve free expression
In their findings the authors state:
upholding First Amendment ideals.
Talking politics at Thanksgiving dinner
- Progressive Activists: younger, highly engaged, secular, cosmopolitan, angry.
- Traditional Liberals: older, retired, open to compromise, rational, cautious.
- Passive Liberals: unhappy, insecure, distrustful, disillusioned.
- Politically Disengaged: young, low income, distrustful, detached, patriotic, conspiratorial
- Moderates: engaged, civic-minded, middle-of-the-road, pessimistic, Protestant.
- Traditional Conservatives: religious, middle class, patriotic, moralistic.
- Devoted Conservatives: white, retired, highly engaged, uncompromising,
It's interesting to note the authors found that:
"Tribe membership shows strong reliability in predicting views across different political topics."
Here are some statistics on differing viewpoints according to political party:
- 51% of staunch liberals say it's "morally acceptable" to punch Nazis.
- 53% of Republicans favor stripping U.S. citizenship from people who burn the American flag.
- 65% of Republicans say NFL players should be fired if they refuse to stand for the anthem.
- 58% of Democrats say employers should punish employees for offensive Facebook posts.
- 47% of Republicans favor bans on building new mosques.
Here are some guidelines for civic discourse that might come in handy:
- Practice inclusion and listen to who you're speaking to.
Civic discourse in the divisive age
dangerously tribal, fueled by a culture of outrage and taking offense. For the combatants,
the other side can no longer be tolerated, and no price is too high to defeat them.
These tensions are poisoning personal relationships, consuming our politics and
putting our democracy in peril.
Once a country has become tribalized, debates about contested issues from
immigration and trade to economic management, climate change and national security,
become shaped by larger tribal identities. Policy debate gives way to tribal conflicts.
Polarization and tribalism are self-reinforcing and will likely continue to accelerate.
The work of rebuilding our fragmented society needs to start now. It extends from
re-connecting people across the lines of division in local communities all the way to
building a renewed sense of national identity: a bigger story of us."
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