Social Entrepreneurship

Question: What is the future of social entrepreneurship?

 

Andrew Kuper: Social entrepreneurship is an incredibly exciting movement. It was spawned by Bill Drayton about 30 years ago who is an incredibly visionary entrepreneur who had the idea that you could really do venture capital for the social sector. So you could pick visionary entrepreneurs committed to systematic social change who had ethical fiber, who were committed to social impact, who were innovative and you could back them, give them some resources and a global support system that allowed them to achieve their goals whether it was in environment, education, healthcare, immigration, multiple different kinds of social impact and then this movement really rocketed and what allowed it to do was both the vision and the power of Ashoka and it offshoots like Endeavor and Acumen and other wonderful organizations that supports social entrepreneurs but it was also the massive growth of the social sector.

So the nonprofits; if you look at the numbers, they’re dramatic. Between 1980 and 2005, you basically have the number of nonprofits in Brazil, go from, I believe it was something like 5,000 to nearly a million, you had in the US, the number of nonprofits go from around 400,000 to 1.2 million so you have this massive burgeoning of the social sector. It suddenly become a much bigger space with much more impact and if you think about it historically, this is interesting because in the 19th Century, we had the Industrial Revolution, in the 18th and 19th Century. At the beginning of the 20th Century and with the world wars, we had the massive growth of the state so you had the burgeoning of the state but the social sector was left behind and we’ve had in the past decades is a massive growth of that sector, almost an Industrial Revolution of that sector.

Now that creates large opportunities because you not only have large numbers of organizations but organizations that can work together and have a division of labor where you achieve much more. Now, what’s the next way for social entrepreneurship, well, I’m particularly excited by things that go up the next level so it helps organizations to work together very effectively whether it’s collaborative technology architectures, whether it’s organizations like Ashoka, Endeavor, and Acumen that helped entrepreneurs to find commonalities, Ashoka of course is a group collaboration, whether it’s financing vehicles that goes to the next level, that back a whole lot of different companies and try to see or organizations and see the synergies between those.

And my company’s and organization’s language is the other really exciting next stage. I think we’re going to see a whole bunch of hybrid entities going from 0% returns, in other words, straight charity and that’s appropriate because why… if you’re trying to end slavery, you’re not going to try to do it on a profitable basis, that is a really charitable activity right through to highly profitable areas like microinsurance and microcredit where you can do and other kinds of social business like Grameen Phone, the mobile phone company. All of these can be hugely profitable and yet hugely impactful and I want to see a complete range that goes minus 10% plus 5% plus 20% plus 60% across the board that works. Now, I happen to be most excited myself about the areas that really bring profit and purpose together and the reason that I’m really excited about that is if you could do something that is hugely socially impactful so it’s quality really helps people with the products you’re selling and at the same time, it’s highly profitable, it’s massively scalable.

And I’m frankly obsessed with the idea that there are four billion poor people out there, we don’t have time to waste, we have to do things at scale, so I want to find mechanisms to really allow for massive, rapid scaling that has a profound impact on the poor and that I think is the most exciting arrowhead of social entrepreneurship right now.

 

Recorded on: May 1, 2009

 

The president of LeapFrog Investments discusses the latest trends in the vast movement known as social entrepreneurship.

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Politics & Current Affairs

Political division is nothing new. Throughout American history there have been numerous flare ups in which the political arena was more than just tense but incideniary. In a letter addressed to William Hamilton in 1800, Thomas Jefferson once lamented about how an emotional fervor had swept over the populace in regards to a certain political issue at the time. It disturbed him greatly to see how these political issues seemed to seep into every area of life and even affect people's interpersonal relationships. At one point in the letter he states:

"I never considered a difference of opinion in politics, in religion, in philosophy, as cause for withdrawing from a friend."

Today, we Americans find ourselves in a similar situation, with our political environment even more splintered due to a number of factors. The advent of mass digital media, siloed identity-driven political groups, and a societal lack of understanding of basic discursive fundamentals all contribute to the problem.

Civil discourse has fallen to an all time low.

The question that the American populace needs to ask itself now is: how do we fix it?


Discursive fundamentals need to be taught to preserve free expression

In a 2017 Free Speech and Tolerance Survey by Cato, it was found that 71% of Americans believe that political correctness had silenced important discussions necessary to our society. Many have pointed to draconian university policies regarding political correctness as a contributing factor to this phenomenon.

It's a great irony that, colleges, once true bastions of free-speech, counterculture and progressiveness, have now devolved into reactionary tribal politics.

Many years ago, one could count on the fact that universities would be the first places where you could espouse and debate any controversial idea without consequence. The decline of staple subjects that deal with the wisdom of the ancients, historical reference points, and civic discourse could be to blame for this exaggerated partisanship boiling on campuses.

Young people seeking an education are given a disservice when fed biased ideology, even if such ideology is presented with the best of intentions. Politics are but one small sliver for society and the human condition at large. Universities would do well to instead teach the principles of healthy discourse and engagement across the ideological spectrum.

The fundamentals of logic, debate and the rich artistic heritage of western civilization need to be the central focus of an education. They help to create a well-rounded citizen that can deal with controversial political issues.

It has been found that in the abstract, college students generally support and endorse the first amendment, but there's a catch when it comes to actually practicing it. This was explored in a Gallup survey titled: Free Expression on Campus: What college students think about First amendment issues.

In their findings the authors state:

"The vast majority say free speech is important to democracy and favor an open learning environment that promotes the airing of a wide variety of ideas. However, the actions of some students in recent years — from milder actions such as claiming to be threatened by messages written in chalk promoting Trump's candidacy to the most extreme acts of engaging in violence to stop attempted speeches — raise issues of just how committed college students are to
upholding First Amendment ideals.

Most college students do not condone more aggressive actions to squelch speech, like violence and shouting down speakers, although there are some who do. However, students do support many policies or actions that place limits on speech, including free speech zones, speech codes and campus prohibitions on hate speech, suggesting that their commitment to free speech has limits. As one example, barely a majority think handing out literature on controversial issues is "always acceptable."

With this in mind, the problems seen on college campuses are also being seen on a whole through other pockets of society and regular everyday civic discourse. Look no further than the dreaded and cliche prospect of political discussion at Thanksgiving dinner.

Talking politics at Thanksgiving dinner

As a result of this increased tribalization of views, it's becoming increasingly more difficult to engage in polite conversation with people possessing opposing viewpoints. The authors of a recent Hidden Tribes study broke down the political "tribes" in which many find themselves in:

  • Progressive Activists: younger, highly engaged, secular, cosmopolitan, angry.
  • Traditional Liberals: older, retired, open to compromise, rational, cautious.
  • Passive Liberals: unhappy, insecure, distrustful, disillusioned.
  • Politically Disengaged: young, low income, distrustful, detached, patriotic, conspiratorial
  • Moderates: engaged, civic-minded, middle-of-the-road, pessimistic, Protestant.
  • Traditional Conservatives: religious, middle class, patriotic, moralistic.
  • Devoted Conservatives: white, retired, highly engaged, uncompromising,
    Patriotic.

Understanding these different viewpoints and the hidden tribes we may belong to will be essential in having conversations with those we disagree with. This might just come to a head when it's Thanksgiving and you have a mix of many different personalities, ages, and viewpoints.

It's interesting to note the authors found that:

"Tribe membership shows strong reliability in predicting views across different political topics."

You'll find that depending on what group you identify with, that nearly 100 percent of the time you'll believe in the same way the rest of your group constituents do.

Here are some statistics on differing viewpoints according to political party:

  • 51% of staunch liberals say it's "morally acceptable" to punch Nazis.
  • 53% of Republicans favor stripping U.S. citizenship from people who burn the American flag.
  • 51% of Democrats support a law that requires Americans use transgender people's preferred gender pronouns.
  • 65% of Republicans say NFL players should be fired if they refuse to stand for the anthem.
  • 58% of Democrats say employers should punish employees for offensive Facebook posts.
  • 47% of Republicans favor bans on building new mosques.

Understanding the fact that tribal membership indicates what you believe, can help you return to the fundamentals for proper political engagement

Here are some guidelines for civic discourse that might come in handy:

  • Avoid logical fallacies. Essentially at the core, a logical fallacy is anything that detracts from the debate and seeks to attack the person rather than the idea and stray from the topic at hand.
  • Practice inclusion and listen to who you're speaking to.
  • Have the idea that there is nothing out of bounds for inquiry or conversation once you get down to an even stronger or new perspective of whatever you were discussing.
  • Keep in mind the maxim of : Do not listen with the intent to reply. But with the intent to understand.
  • We're not trying to proselytize nor shout others down with our rhetoric, but come to understand one another again.
  • If we're tied too closely to some in-group we no longer become an individual but a clone of someone else's ideology.

Civic discourse in the divisive age

Debate and civic discourse is inherently messy. Add into the mix an ignorance of history, rabid politicization and debased political discourse, you can see that it will be very difficult in mending this discursive staple of a functional civilization.

There is still hope that this great divide can be mended, because it has to be. The Hidden Tribes authors at one point state:

"In the era of social media and partisan news outlets, America's differences have become
dangerously tribal, fueled by a culture of outrage and taking offense. For the combatants,
the other side can no longer be tolerated, and no price is too high to defeat them.
These tensions are poisoning personal relationships, consuming our politics and
putting our democracy in peril.


Once a country has become tribalized, debates about contested issues from
immigration and trade to economic management, climate change and national security,
become shaped by larger tribal identities. Policy debate gives way to tribal conflicts.
Polarization and tribalism are self-reinforcing and will likely continue to accelerate.
The work of rebuilding our fragmented society needs to start now. It extends from
re-connecting people across the lines of division in local communities all the way to
building a renewed sense of national identity: a bigger story of us."

We need to start teaching people how to approach subjects from less of an emotional or baseless educational bias or identity, especially in the event that the subject matter could be construed to be controversial or uncomfortable.

This will be the beginning of a new era of understanding, inclusion and the defeat of regressive philosophies that threaten the core of our nation and civilization.