Should Government Be Split By Sex?
\r\nJoan Wallach Scott: Most of my work is in nineteenth century French \r\nhistory and both the Veil book and Parité are on twentieth and \r\ntwenty-first century, and I had done work on feminist demands for voting\r\n rights. Women get the vote in France in 1944. I had done all kinds of\r\n work on that and then I began to read about this movement for… le \r\nmouvement pour la parité, and that was devised by a group of French \r\nfeminists who… many of whom were involved in politics and who felt that \r\nthey were just hitting a brick wall or a glass ceiling or whatever, that\r\n they was just so much toleration by the vast majority of men who were \r\nin politics for women coming in and one of the things they pointed out \r\nwas that since women had gotten the vote in 1944 until they started \r\ntheir movement in 1990 no more than 5 and at most 6% of the French \r\nParliament were women and this they seemed to them… this put France on a\r\n par with some of the most un-advanced countries of Europe and indeed, \r\nof the world and this was brought up over and over again as a way of \r\nthinking about what to do.
\r\nAt first they proposed quotas and quotas were struck down by the French \r\nconstitutional court as unconstitutional and then they proposed what \r\nthey called parité and this was where the thing we talked about before \r\nabout French universalism was this sort of wonderful turn on French \r\nuniversalism. French universalism, the unit of universalism is the \r\nabstract individual who has no characteristics, no social \r\ncharacteristics, no religion, no race, no ethnicity, nothing except \r\nhistorically sex. The reason women weren’t given the vote initially \r\nwhen men got the vote, which was in… First they had the vote in the \r\nFrench revolution for a while, but in 1848 you have universal manhood \r\nsuffrage. Women didn’t get the vote because they were thought to be \r\ndomestic, dependent, the sex. They were outside of the political realm \r\nand so the people who supported parité argued that sex was the one thing\r\n that couldn’t be abstracted for the purposes of the abstract individual\r\n and if that was the case then why not say that the abstract individual \r\ncame in two sexes, male and female, but that all that that sexual \r\ndifference meant was anatomy. It was anatomical difference. It had \r\nnothing to do with social, cultural, political behavior, capabilities, \r\ncapacities. Those were all culturally attributed. And so they began to\r\n campaign for 50% representation for women and what they argued was that\r\n there should be a law that said that 50% of the parliament had to be \r\nall… 50% of all the seats in the National Assembly had to be for women \r\nand so on in all political offices, which didn’t fly terribly well, \r\nalthough that was the original plan.
\r\nSo this movement developed and they were ingenious in the kinds of \r\npolitical things they did, the demonstrations they would have, the signs\r\n they would… the posters they would hold up, all sorts of puns in French\r\n on the National Assembly being you know all male and I can’t really \r\nreproduce them in this, but in any case they moved along and as \r\ndifferent governments came into… They created coalitions also across \r\nparty lines. This was one of the really ingenious things, with women \r\nwho were leaders in very different political parties. They also created\r\n a kind of grassroots movement by bringing together the heads of all the\r\n sort of voluntary associations, the Association of Graduates, women \r\ngraduates of technical schools, women lawyers, you know the kind of \r\nprofessional associations and farmer’s wives and whatever, grassroots \r\nassociations. The leadership of that came together and supported, \r\nsigned the petition also in favor of parité and they created this sort \r\nof ground swell of public opinion such that at one point something like,\r\n I don’t remember the numbers now, but something like 70 or more than \r\n70% of the population surveyed both male and female thought that there \r\nshould be greater equality in politics and they could imagine a woman \r\npresident of France. This was long before Ségolène Royal and you know \r\nher attempt to become president.
\r\nSo then the socialists came into power I think in 1997 and there seemed a\r\n real possibility for getting this law passed because Jacques Chirac was \r\ninclined to do more egalitarian sorts of things and this seemed like a \r\ngood thing to do and then the original movement, which was saying on the\r\n one hand there have to be… we have to take sex into account in \r\npolitical representation, but on the other hand saying that sex was \r\nirrelevant for the capabilities and the characteristics and the \r\nideologies and the outlooks of women and men that there weren’t… that \r\nthe differences were not deeply rooted or biological. Then in 1990, \r\nwell, in the 90s, but in 1998, ’99 it came to a head. This coincided \r\nwith the push for domestic partnership legislation in France and the \r\ndomestic partnership legislation unleashed a campaign that could only be\r\n called homophobic, although some of its representatives denied that \r\nthey were homophobic, of the most extraordinary sort in which everybody \r\nwas okay with the idea that there could be a contract, a domestic \r\npartnership contract, but not with the idea that gay couples could have \r\nfamilies, that gay couples could adopt or could have access to \r\nreproductive technologies of all kinds, in vitro fertilization and stuff\r\n like that and the law that passed did not permit adoption or the \r\nrecognition of a homoparental family.
\r\nThe debate that unfolded around that was one which reintroduced the \r\nnotion of sexual difference as a fundamental distinction that had to be \r\nmaintained. Maybe it wasn’t biological, but it was cultural. People \r\nsaid things like children have a right to know that they are born of a \r\nman and a woman. This in the age of reproductive technology when, you \r\nknow, some children are produced in petri dishes and you know, \r\nwhatever. That children would become psychotic if they were raised by \r\nsame sex parents and so on and so on, and there was a book published \r\nactually at the time called, La Politique du Sexe, The Politics of Sex, \r\nby the wife of ****, ****, a philosopher of sorts, and she argued in \r\nfavor of parité and against homosexual parenting by saying that couples \r\nthat… the sort of normal couple had to be a man and a women because \r\nthere was complementarity that had to be… come into play and similarly \r\nshe said in politics that complementarity has to be there, so no single \r\nsex legislatures, no single sex families and that became the kind of \r\ndominant discourse of the moment and when the law passed the law on \r\nparité, people kept saying I agree or many of the legislators who voted \r\nfor it finally said yes, I agree with **** that there has to be \r\ncomplementarity, that women represent a different sensibility, a \r\ndifferent set of concerns, a different set of interests and we need to \r\nhave those in the parliament as well, so on the one hand the law passed,\r\n but the underlying premises of it had changed in the course of the \r\nhistory of the movement for parité from one in which the goal was to \r\neliminate the notion that there were fundamental differences between men\r\n and women to one in which the fundamental differences were what indeed \r\nhad to be represented.
\r\nQuestion: Do you think democratic government would function better \r\nunder a parité system?
\r\nJoan Wallach Scott: Well I think you know what parité now is \r\nit’s a requirement that all the ballots… rather than that the \r\nlegislature has to be half and half that the ballots, that on most \r\nballots and not all ballots women have to be half the candidates. I’m \r\nnot sure that would work here. I think it would be dismissed as another\r\n form of quota, as a secret form of quota creeping in, but I do think \r\nthat the best sorts of situations are one in which sexual difference \r\ndoesn’t matter anymore and those happen the more women, because they are\r\n the ones who are usually excluded, the more women you have in the group\r\n just as the more African-Americans you have in a group, the more of \r\nothers become part of what you get used to you stop thinking about the \r\ndifferences of sex of the differences of race. You just deal with them \r\nas people and you disagree with their ideas. You say no, I don’t like \r\nthat idea rather than reacting to them as women or men or black or white\r\n or whatever. I mean I think those are in my experience of having at \r\nthe beginning of my career being the one woman in the Department of \r\nHistory at the university I first taught at to being part of a group. \r\nWhen I was at Brown University under a court order Brown increased, \r\ndramatically increased the numbers of women who are on its faculty. \r\nAfter a while you know nobody can say well all women are like her or she\r\n is the embodiment of what I hate about women because the variety is \r\nlarge enough so that it becomes a kind of irrelevant consideration or if\r\n not irrelevant because it is never completely irrelevant, a minor \r\nconsideration in the institutional dealings, in the practical matters, \r\nin the kinds of politics and sorts of decisions that you have to make, \r\nso I think the more mixing you have the more democratic and in fact, the\r\n more egalitarian things become. Again, it is never perfect. I mean \r\nthere are always going to be deep psychological issues about who is \r\nmale, who is female, men, women, this, that, but those become less and \r\nless significant in situations in which you have a fairly large \r\nrepresentation of the varieties of groups that are possible.
Recorded April 26th, 2010
\r\nInterviewed by Austin Allen
The history of the French "parité movement," and its lessons for U.S. democracy.
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The COVID-19 pandemic is making health disparities in the United States crystal clear. It is a clarion call for health care systems to double their efforts in vulnerable communities.
- The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated America's health disparities, widening the divide between the haves and have nots.
- Studies show disparities in wealth, race, and online access have disproportionately harmed underserved U.S. communities during the pandemic.
- To begin curing this social aliment, health systems like Northwell Health are establishing relationships of trust in these communities so that the post-COVID world looks different than the pre-COVID one.
COVID-19 deepens U.S. health disparities<p>Communities on the pernicious side of America's health disparities have their unique histories, environments, and social structures. They are spread across the United States, but they all have one thing in common.</p><p>"There is one common divide in American communities, and that is poverty," said <a href="https://www.northwell.edu/about/leadership/debbie-salas-lopez" target="_blank">Debbie Salas-Lopez, MD, MPH</a>, senior vice president of community and population health at Northwell Health. "That is the undercurrent that manifests poor health, poor health outcomes, or poor health prognoses for future wellbeing."</p><p>Social determinants have far-reaching effects on health, and poor communities have unfavorable social determinants. To pick one of many examples, <a href="https://www.npr.org/2020/09/27/913612554/a-crisis-within-a-crisis-food-insecurity-and-covid-19" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">food insecurity</a> reduces access to quality food, leading to poor health and communal endemics of chronic medical conditions. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified some of these conditions, such as obesity and Type 2 diabetes, as increasing the risk of developing a severe case of coronavirus.</p><p>The pandemic didn't create poverty or food insecurity, but it exacerbated both, and the results have been catastrophic. A study published this summer in the <em><a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11606-020-05971-3" target="_blank">Journal of General Internal Medicine</a></em> suggested that "social factors such as income inequality may explain why some parts of the USA are hit harder by the COVID-19 pandemic than others."</p><p>That's not to say better-off families in the U.S. weren't harmed. A <a href="https://voxeu.org/article/poverty-inequality-and-covid-19-us" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">paper from the Centre for Economic Policy Research</a> noted that families in counties with a higher median income experienced adjustment costs associated with the pandemic—for example, lowering income-earning interactions to align with social distancing policies. However, the paper found that the costs of social distancing were much greater for poorer families, who cannot easily alter their living circumstances, which often include more individuals living in one home and a reliance on mass transit to reach work and grocery stores. They are also disproportionately represented in essential jobs, such as retail, transportation, and health care, where maintaining physical distance can be all but impossible.</p><p>The paper also cited a positive correlation between higher income inequality and higher rates of coronavirus infection. "Our interpretation is that poorer people are less able to protect themselves, which leads them to different choices—they face a steeper trade-off between their health and their economic welfare in the context of the threats posed by COVID-19," the authors wrote.</p><p>"There are so many pandemics that this pandemic has exacerbated," Dr. Salas-Lopez noted.</p><p>One example is the health-wealth gap. The mental stressors of maintaining a low socioeconomic status, especially in the face of extreme affluence, can have a physically degrading impact on health. <a href="https://www.scientificamerican.com/index.cfm/_api/render/file/?method=inline&fileID=123ECD96-EF81-46F6-983D2AE9A45FA354" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Writing on this gap</a>, Robert Sapolsky, professor of biology and neurology at Stanford University, notes that socioeconomic stressors can increase blood pressure, reduce insulin response, increase chronic inflammation, and impair the prefrontal cortex and other brain functions through anxiety, depression, and cognitive load. </p><p>"Thus, from the macro level of entire body systems to the micro level of individual chromosomes, poverty finds a way to produce wear and tear," Sapolsky writes. "It is outrageous that if children are born into the wrong family, they will be predisposed toward poor health by the time they start to learn the alphabet."</p>Research on the economic and mental health fallout of COVID-19 is showing two things: That unemployment is hitting <a href="https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2020/09/24/economic-fallout-from-covid-19-continues-to-hit-lower-income-americans-the-hardest/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">low-income and young Americans</a> most during the pandemic, potentially widening the health-wealth gap further; and that the pandemic not only exacerbates mental health stressors, but is doing so at clinically relevant levels. As <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413844/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">the authors of one review</a> wrote, the pandemic's effects on mental health is itself an international public health priority.
Working to close the health gap<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDc5MDk1MS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYxNTYyMzQzMn0.KSFpXH7yHYrfVPtfgcxZqAHHYzCnC2bFxwSrJqBbH4I/img.jpg?width=980" id="b40e2" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="1b9035370ab7b02a0dc00758e494412b" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Northwell Health coronavirus testing center at Greater Springfield Community Church.
Credit: Northwell Health<p>Novel coronavirus may spread and infect indiscriminately, but pre-existing conditions, environmental stressors, and a lack of access to care and resources increase the risk of infection. These social determinants make the pandemic more dangerous, and erode communities' and families' abilities to heal from health crises that pre-date the pandemic.</p><p>How do we eliminate these divides? Dr. Salas-Lopez says the first step is recognition. "We have to open our eyes to see the suffering around us," she said. "Northwell has not shied away from that."</p><p>"We are steadfast in improving health outcomes for our vulnerable and underrepresented communities that have suffered because of the prevalence of chronic disease, a problem that led to the disproportionately higher death rate among African-Americans and Latinos during the COVID-19 pandemic," said Michael Dowling, Northwell's president and CEO. "We are committed to using every tool at our disposal—as a provider of health care, employer, purchaser and investor—to combat disparities and ensure the <a href="https://www.northwell.edu/education-and-resources/community-engagement/center-for-equity-of-care" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">equity of care</a> that everyone deserves." </p><p>With the need recognized, Dr. Salas-Lopez calls for health care systems to travel upstream and be proactive in those hard-hit communities. This requires health care systems to play a strong role, but not a unilateral one. They must build <a href="https://www.northwell.edu/news/insights/faith-based-leaders-are-the-key-to-improving-community-health" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">partnerships with leaders in those communities</a> and utilize those to ensure relationships last beyond the current crisis. </p><p>"We must meet with community leaders and talk to them to get their perspective on what they believe the community needs are and should be for the future. Together, we can co-create a plan to measurably improve [community] health and also to be ready for whatever comes next," she said.</p><p>Northwell has built relationships with local faith-based and community organizations in underserved communities of color. Those partnerships enabled Northwell to test more than 65,000 people across the metro New York region. The health system also offered education on coronavirus and precautions to curb its spread.</p><p>These initiatives began the process of building trust—trust that Northwell has counted on to return to these communities to administer flu vaccines to prepare for what experts fear may be a difficult flu season.</p><p>While Northwell has begun building bridges across the divides of the New York area, much will still need to be done to cure U.S. health care overall. There is hope that the COVID pandemic will awaken us to the deep disparities in the US.</p><p>"COVID has changed our world. We have to seize this opportunity, this pandemic, this crisis to do better," Dr. Salas-Lopez said. "Provide better care. Provide better health. Be better partners. Be better community citizens. And treat each other with respect and dignity.</p><p>"We need to find ways to unify this country because we're all human beings. We're all created equal, and we believe that health is one of those important rights."</p>
Can passenger airships make a triumphantly 'green' comeback?
Large airships were too sensitive to wind gusts and too sluggish to win against aeroplanes. But today, they have a chance to make a spectacular return.
Vegans and vegetarians often have nutrient deficiencies and lower BMI, which can increase the risk of fractures.
- The study found that vegans were 43% more likely to suffer fractures than meat eaters.
- Similar results were observed for vegetarians and fish eaters, though to a lesser extent.
- It's possible to be healthy on a vegan diet, though it takes some strategic planning to compensate for the nutrients that a plant-based diet can't easily provide.
Comparison of fracture cases by diet group
Credit: Tong et al.<p>The results showed that vegans were especially vulnerable to hip fractures, suffering 2.3 times more cases than meat-eaters. Vegetarians and pescatarians were also more likely to suffer hip fractures, though to a lesser extent.</p><p>One explanation may be that non-meat eaters consume less calcium and protein. Calcium helps the body build strong bones, particularly before age 30, after which the body begins to lose bone mineral density (though consuming enough calcium through diet or supplement can <a href="https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Calcium-Consumer/" target="_blank">help offset losses</a>). Lower bone mineral density means higher risk of fracture.</p><p>Protein seems to help the body absorb calcium, <a href="https://www.bonejoint.net/blog/did-you-know-that-certain-foods-block-calcium-absorption/#:~:text=Historically%2C%20nutritionists%20have%20warned%20that,may%20increase%20intestinal%20calcium%20absorption." target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">when consumed in normal levels</a>. The recent study, along with past research, shows that people who don't eat meat tend to have lower levels of both protein and calcium. When the researchers accounted for non-meat eaters who supplemented their diets with calcium and protein, fracture risk decreased, but still remained significant.</p>
Credit: Pixabay<p>Another explanation is body mass index (BMI). Non-meat eaters tend to have a lower BMI, which is associated with higher fracture risk, particularly hip fractures. In the new study, vegans with a low BMI were especially likely to suffer hip fractures. That might be because having more body mass provides a cushioning effect when people fall.</p><p>Still, the study has some limitations. For one, White European women were overrepresented in the sample. The researchers also didn't collect precise data on the type of calcium or protein supplementation, diet quality or causes of fractures.</p><p>Another complicating factor: Producers of vegan products, such as plant-based milk, are increasingly fortifying foods with nutrients like calcium and protein, so modern vegans are potentially at lower risk of deficiency.</p><p>The researchers wrote that their findings "suggest that bone health in vegans requires further research."</p>
Staying healthy on a vegan diet<p>So, does a vegan diet necessarily lead to worse bone health? Not necessarily. But it's safe to say that people who don't consume meat, dairy and eggs should be extra vigilant about consuming enough essential nutrients. That can be harder than it seems.<br></p><p>One major reason is that the body generally has an easier time absorbing nutrients from animal foods than plant-based products. So, while a salad could contain the same amount of calcium as a glass of milk, the body absorbs more calcium when you drink milk. What's more, there are some molecules and <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/7-nutrients-you-cant-get-from-plants#5.-Docosahexaenoic-acid-(DHA)" target="_blank">nutrients you simply can't get from plants</a>.</p><p>As such, many vegans round out their diets with supplements, including zinc, iron, iodine, long-chain omega-3s, and vitamins D, K-2, and B-12, to name a few. If you're on a vegan diet or considering making the switch, it's probably best to consult a dietician, and to make sure you maintain a <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/adult_bmi/english_bmi_calculator/bmi_calculator.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">healthy BMI</a>.</p>
A study by UK archaeologists finds that longbows caused horrific injuries similar to modern gunshot wounds.
- UK archaeologists discover medieval longbows caused injuries similar to modern gunshot wounds.
- The damage was caused by the arrows spinning clockwise.
- No longbows from medieval times survived until our times.
Battle of Agincourt.
The angle of entry into a cranium found during the excavation at a medieval Dominican friary in Exeter, England.
Credit: Oliver Creighton/University of Exeter
Never made a turkey before? Don't worry, science can help.
- This year, many people will be making a Thanksgiving dinner for the first time. It's often harder than it looks.
- Luckily, an online calculator website has one just for thawing turkey, and can explain why you need to wait so long.
- The website has other calculators as well, for needs you didn't know you had.
How to thaw a turkey using science!<p> The Omni Calculator <a href="https://www.omnicalculator.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">website</a> is home to calculators that can determine many things, including how <a href="https://www.omnicalculator.com/other/sunscreen" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">long you can be in the sun safely</a>,<a href="https://www.omnicalculator.com/other/sunscreen" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> </a>to the odds of your town having a <a href="https://www.omnicalculator.com/other/white-christmas" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">white Christmas</a>. It now has a dedicated tool for finding how long it will take you to prep your <a href="https://www.omnicalculator.com/food/turkey-thawing" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">turkey</a> in time for a socially distanced holiday. The <a href="https://www.omnicalculator.com/food/turkey-thawing" target="_blank">Turkey Thawing Calculator </a>was created by Jagiellonian University cognitive science graduate Maria Kluziak with the help of Wojciech Sas, a Ph.D. candidate in molecular magnetism and nanostructures at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Poland. </p><p>The fundamental problem is that you need to add heat to the frozen bird to unfreeze it without also encouraging the growth of bacteria. To do this, you have to put the turkey somewhere where it will heat up slowly and evenly. There is a trick, though; this can take a long time because of the amount of energy involved. Exactly how long you need to spend on it can be hard to determine if you've never done it before. </p><p>This is where practical, day-to-day science comes in. The processes of heating something are well-studied areas of thermodynamics which we use every day. <br> <br> As Kluziak tells Big Think: </p><p>"If you look closely, you'll notice how we're all surrounded by numbers. Yet most of the time people choose to go with their intuition while making day-to-day decisions. We, as scientists and experts in our own fields, are trying to build a world where people make better, more informed decisions backed by concrete science - Using physics to chill drinks, math to find out how much pizza to get, and even calculating how much groceries are enough to survive a quarantine. It works."</p>
So, how do I thaw a turkey?<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDgwNjA0Ny9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0NzI3NTQzN30.hr2xv0tzFU_12bA-wwKwBPv0Tou_ZcdMoF1VDlov-0k/img.png?width=980" id="07afc" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="522a8b8370fecb9dcb3bf483adea6fa5" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Credit: Omni Calculator<p> By slowly exposing the turkey to cool air or water, it heats up to a point where the bird is above freezing but not so warm that bacteria will start multiplying. Two of the safe ways to do this stand above all others; you can thaw it in the refrigerator or the sink.<br> <br> Using a refrigerator can take days; the calculator creators suggest a day for every four pounds of bird. Doing it with cold water in the sink is faster, needing only two hours per pound, but requires that you drain and refill the sink with new, cold water every thirty minutes. The ideal temperature during thawing shouldn't exceed 39°F/4°C.</p><p>"In our thawing model, we use a scientific approach, which is based on the use of heat transfer equations," the scientists write. "Since these types of problems are, in general, very complicated, we use some approximations, which allow us to estimate the thawing time with reasonable accuracy. As a result, you can see how the average temperature of the turkey changes in time." </p><p>You can learn more about the equations and get tips on using the calculator <a href="https://www.omnicalculator.com/food/turkey-thawing" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">here</a>. You can also learn why you shouldn't use a hairdryer or a tub full of hot water to do the job. <br> <br> One of the best parts of science is that its findings are often universally applicable. If you understand why something works in one case, you can use it everywhere else. Kluziak reminds us why this might be great for cooking:<br> <br> "The rules that govern the process of thawing are roughly the same for every kind of food, what's different are the numbers that determine the more specific things like thawing time. The general ideas remain the same regardless of the food, and I would say they are pure common sense. For example, if you're defrosting food, don't do it at room temperature to avoid bacteria - this is true every time!"<strong></strong></p><p><strong> </strong>Whoever said you'd never use the science you learned in high school at home didn't understand how often we use physics—this calculator remind us that it is everywhere. So fear not, ye first-time turkey chefs! Science can help you have your main course and eat it too. </p>