Re: How do we divorce the personal from the political?

Question: How do we divorce the personal from the political?

Stephen Carter: If we were to raise the level of public dialogue, it starts with humility – with our own personal humility. It starts with a sense of ourselves; recognizing the possibility that no matter how passionate we are, we could be wrong. We could be wrong. And maybe each of us should have one or two things that we think it’s impossible to be wrong about – genocide, for example. That’s not a debatable issue. But you know what? The problem is that most of us have 20 or 25 issues on which we think we couldn’t possibly be wrong, and that’s where the problem arises. We don’t just have one or two. Apart . . . separating out the one or two issues in which we think there is no possibility of error, I think we have to be very humble about other things. And humility means recognizing in everyday conversations like this one the possibility of error; and therefore listening to what the other side has to say, and listening to it in a serious and thoughtful way. But we can only raise the level of our dialogue if we’ll do little things like take the bumper stickers off our cars. I really mean that very sincerely; that the bumper sticker world is a world of slogans, and is a world that doesn’t care to hear debates. It is a remarkably wonderful symbol that bumper stickers are on the back of the car; that the person driving the car is facing away from the person reading the bumper sticker as though to say, “Here is my view. It is not debatable. You read it. I’m through discussing the matter.” That’s very dangerous, and it’s very scary. I think if we take the bumper stickers off our car and take it out of our voices, we will already have taken a big step toward improving our public dialogue. ___________ fantasy in which then all those talking heads on the news just report the news anymore, but that’s just a fantasy.

Recorded on: 7/25/07




We must move away from bumper-sticker dialogue, Carter says.

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An organism found in dirt may lead to an anxiety vaccine, say scientists

Can dirt help us fight off stress? Groundbreaking new research shows how.

University of Colorado Boulder
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  • New research identifies a bacterium that helps block anxiety.
  • Scientists say this can lead to drugs for first responders and soldiers, preventing PTSD and other mental issues.
  • The finding builds on the hygiene hypothesis, first proposed in 1989.

Are modern societies trying too hard to be clean, at the detriment to public health? Scientists discovered that a microorganism living in dirt can actually be good for us, potentially helping the body to fight off stress. Harnessing its powers can lead to a "stress vaccine".

Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder found that the fatty 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid from the soil-residing bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae aids immune cells in blocking pathways that increase inflammation and the ability to combat stress.

The study's senior author and Integrative Physiology Professor Christopher Lowry described this fat as "one of the main ingredients" in the "special sauce" that causes the beneficial effects of the bacterium.

The finding goes hand in hand with the "hygiene hypothesis," initially proposed in 1989 by the British scientist David Strachan. He maintained that our generally sterile modern world prevents children from being exposed to certain microorganisms, resulting in compromised immune systems and greater incidences of asthma and allergies.

Contemporary research fine-tuned the hypothesis, finding that not interacting with so-called "old friends" or helpful microbes in the soil and the environment, rather than the ones that cause illnesses, is what's detrimental. In particular, our mental health could be at stake.

"The idea is that as humans have moved away from farms and an agricultural or hunter-gatherer existence into cities, we have lost contact with organisms that served to regulate our immune system and suppress inappropriate inflammation," explained Lowry. "That has put us at higher risk for inflammatory disease and stress-related psychiatric disorders."

University of Colorado Boulder

Christopher Lowry

This is not the first study on the subject from Lowry, who published previous work showing the connection between being exposed to healthy bacteria and mental health. He found that being raised with animals and dust in a rural environment helps children develop more stress-proof immune systems. Such kids were also likely to be less at risk for mental illnesses than people living in the city without pets.

Lowry's other work also pointed out that the soil-based bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae acts like an antidepressant when injected into rodents. It alters their behavior and has lasting anti-inflammatory effects on the brain, according to the press release from the University of Colorado Boulder. Prolonged inflammation can lead to such stress-related disorders as PTSD.

The new study from Lowry and his team identified why that worked by pinpointing the specific fatty acid responsible. They showed that when the 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid gets into cells, it works like a lock, attaching itself to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). This allows it to block a number of key pathways responsible for inflammation. Pre-treating the cells with the acid (or lipid) made them withstand inflammation better.

Lowry thinks this understanding can lead to creating a "stress vaccine" that can be given to people in high-stress jobs, like first responders or soldiers. The vaccine can prevent the psychological effects of stress.

What's more, this friendly bacterium is not the only potentially helpful organism we can find in soil.

"This is just one strain of one species of one type of bacterium that is found in the soil but there are millions of other strains in soils," said Lowry. "We are just beginning to see the tip of the iceberg in terms of identifying the mechanisms through which they have evolved to keep us healthy. It should inspire awe in all of us."

Check out the study published in the journal Psychopharmacology.