Navy SEALs: How to build a warrior mindset
SEAL training is the ultimate test of both mental and physical strength.
BRENT GLEESON: SEAL training is 18 months long. We talk about discipline, we talk about trust, accountability, mental fortitude. Very, very high attrition rate. For my class only about 10 percent ultimately graduated of the original class. But the first six months of that 18 month training pipeline is called BUDS, which stands for Basic Underwater Demolition SEAL. And the first three weeks of BUDS are leading up the Hell Week. And those three weeks are no joke either. They're just as bad as Hell Week, but you get to sleep a couple of hours a night. But then Hell Week is where you're going to weed out the rest of your class. By the end of Hell Week 80 percent of your class is gone. Hell Week starts on a Sunday, ends on a Friday afternoon, and the great thing about that Sunday is the class will report to one of the main classrooms with only a couple required items in their possession and we don't allow them to know when Hell Week will commence, when breakout starts. And it's pure chaos. Guys will quit minutes into breakout. And so the anguish, the anxiety is just killing you. It's a fascinating thing to watch. Not a fascinating thing to be a part of. So that afternoon our class leader, who's the highest ranking officer in the class, he read us – one of the things he did to motivate us was to read us the speech, the St. Crispin's Day speech from William Shakespeare's Henry V. And a great excerpt that many people know from that speech is, "We few, we happy few, we band of brothers. For he today that sheds his blood with me shall be my brother."
ERIC GREITENS: If there was a single question that you can ask someone to measure how resilient they're going to be, you ask them what are you responsible for. And what you find is that even in the most difficult situations when you look at stories of people who have been prisoners of war, for example. People who survive said I'm going to take control of my thoughts, or I'm going to take control of the way that I breathe. There are certain things even though my freedom has been taken away from me that my ability to eat where I live. All of these things have been taken away from me. I'm still going to control something. And when you focus on actually taking control of something and what happens is your circle of control begins to widen and people begin to see that even in the face of hardship and difficulty, there's a way for them to build power and live a purposeful life.
DAVID GOGGINS: People always ask me how do you build mental toughness. Mental toughness also has these classes out here. A class on mental toughness. Positive thinking, visualization, all these different techniques—mental toughness is a lifestyle. It's something that you live every single day of your life. When I was growing up I was a lazy kid. I was a lazy kid and everyone goes how did you get to where you're at today? How did you get to where you're running 200 miles at one time in 39 hours being so disciplined. It started off honestly with recognizing that my bedroom was dirty. My bed wasn't made. I lived a sloppy life. So I took very small increments in my life. I started making my bed. I started cleaning my room. I started doing things, coming outside of my lazy ways to become better. And through a period of time your brain doesn't like it, but it starts to realize this is a new way of thinking. We are now doing things that we are uncomfortable doing. We are doing things that we don't want to do. So the brain starts to slowly grow. And let's say you don't like to get up early in the morning time to go run. I hated it. I still hate it. You do that. You live uncomfortable to gain growth. You have to have friction in your life to gain growth. And the only way to do that is to make yourself uncomfortable and get to the point where instead of running from the things you don't want to do, you actually face them and start to gain more and more growth in your life.
GREITENS: Everybody has to deal with hardship. Everybody has to deal with struggle and there's this great quotation from Hemmingway. "The world is a hard place," he said. "And the world breaks everyone," he said. "And many are strong at the broken places." Now people often remember this phrase strong at the broken places but it's also important to remember his qualifier – many. Not all are strong at the broken places. And some people when they confront hardship actually end up in a place where they're helpless. Some people are broken by suffering. Some people are actually really hurt by pain in such a way that they can't move forward. But it's also the case that some people deal with hardship and become heroic.
GOGGINS: I work out hard every day because I know the first thing in the morning what I do is I clean my room, I clean my house, I go for a run, I work out. I want to win the war in the morning, because the second I leave my house, the second you look at your phone, the second you turn your TV on you're in a battle. If you do it, if you do something you don't want to do every morning, you're already giving yourself the proper self-talk. You're already giving yourself the proper dialogue to attack the people that don't like you, to attack your insecurities, to attack what the world's going to give you. So self-talk comes from belief in yourself. So I realize for me to find growth I had to face all of these different things that made me very, very uncomfortable. One thing I faced was running.
JESSE ITZLER: I was running this race as part of a six person relay team with friends and he was running the entire race by himself.
GOGGINS: Where you run around a one mile track for 24 hours to see how many miles you can get.
ITZLER: And the run was unsupported so you have to bring your own supplies. So we had, we overdid it a little bit. We had a tent and we had masseuses and food. I mean we were ready for like in case we had to stay there a week. And he had a folding chair, a bottle of water and a bag of crackers. And I just thought to myself like who is this guy. I've never seen anything like it.
GOGGINS: Around mile 30 I started feeling my shins starting to get extremely sore and I started to develop stress fractures, shin splints. I started feeling the metatarsals in my feet starting to break at around mile 50. By mile 70 I was totally destroyed. All I could think about was how can I get out of this chair. I have 30 miles to go. And everything I had gone through I realized that the human mind if you can put it in a very quiet, calm place and get it to calm down and not be so spastic that you could possibly make this work out for you. How bad are you really.
ITZLER: He weighed probably 260 pounds which is quite large for an ultra runner. He had broken all the small bones in both of his feet and had kidney damage and he finished the race.
GOGGINS: Once the mind knows you're not going to quit something it's going to try to find more. It's going to give you more. Once it realizes you're not going to take the path of least resistance. You're going to stay here until it's done. My mind and my body and my spirit became one for the first time ever. I'd overcome so many obstacles in my life and this was the final crucible for me and I got through it. And at the end of this race was such clarity to me.
ITZLER: So when it was done I Googled him and he had a fascinating life story and I decided literally to cold call him. And I flew out and met with him and after sitting with him for a couple of minutes I realized that I could learn so much from a guy like this and what makes him tick and various buckets in my life would be so much better if a little bit of what he had rubbed off on me. I asked him to come live with my family and I for a month. The first day that SEAL came to live with me he asked me to do – he said how many pull-ups can you do? And I'm not great at pull-ups. I did about eight, just getting over the bar eight. And he said all right, take 30 seconds and do it again. So 30 seconds later I got up on the bar and I did six struggling. And he said all right, one more time. We waited 30 seconds and I barely got three or four and I was done. I mean couldn't move my arms done. And he said all right, we're not leaving here until you do a hundred more. And I thought there's no – well we're going to be here for quite a long time because there's no way that I could do a hundred. But I ended up doing it one at a time and he showed me, proved to me right there that there was so much more. We're all capable of so much more than we think we are. He would say that when you're mind is telling you you're done, you're really only 40 percent done.
GOGGINS: The 40 percent rule is something I designed also when I was growing up. I realized when I was almost 300 pounds that I could have lived the rest of my life being a 300 pound person never knowing what was truly inside of me. I could have been happy with that person. I was living at about 40 percent. Maybe not even 40 percent.
ITZLER: And he had a motto, "If it doesn't suck, we don't do it." And that was his way of every day forcing us to get uncomfortable, to figure out what our baseline was and what our comfort level was and just turning it upside down.
GOGGINS: When our brain starts to go through suffering. When our brain starts to go through pain or starts to go through insecurities, when we start to feel uncomfortable with ourself, our brain gives us a way out. And that way out is usually quitting or taking the easier route. If we're able to look at ourselves and face whatever we're running from you start to gain more percent on top of that 40. You start to realize okay, you start to slowly take that governor off your brain.
ITZLER: The 40 percent rule, maybe it's give or take a little, but look at a marathon. Most people hit the wall in a marathon at mile anywhere from 16 to 20. Ninety-nine percent of the people in this country that run marathons finish and they all, predominantly all of them go through this hit the wall. So where does that extra 50 or 60 percent or whatever the number is come from? I mean it's their brain saying I'm done, I don't want to continue, but their will saying you know what – let me get to the finish line. So we all have that will. It's just a matter of how do we apply it to not just with the once a year marathon, but to our daily lives.
GOGGINS: And usually whatever's in front of you isn't as big as you make it out to be. We start to make these very small things enormous because we allow our minds to take control and go away from us. We have to regain control of our mind.
JAMIE WHEAL: The Navy SEALs are probably right there on the cutting edge of deploying advanced technology to accelerate their performance in the field and to accelerate their performance in forming and leading teams. There are probably three major areas in their bodies and brains they focus on. The first is neuroelectric activity so what is happening in our brainwave states as we go into stressful situations. Our heart rate and the quality of our cardiac rhythm. So not just how many beats a minute are our hearts beating under stress, but literally what is the quality. Is it anabolic meaning healthy and positive, or catabolic meaning unhealthy and destructive in my cardiac rhythm? And then even galvanic skin response. So how much is my system under stress or strain and sweating kind of the same metrics that are used in lie detector tests, polygraphs and those kinds of things. And they actually have very robust vests filled with sensors that will allow teams to go through operations and have commanders being able to see on a laptop up to 50 operators at once and being able to monitor all of their activities in the field, see who's fallen down, see what their core body temperature is. See a host of biometrics in their mind gym which is unique and specific to dev group, which is more popularly known as SEAL Team Six, but their official name is Special Warfare Development Group. Those guys also have an entire center built called the mind gym and it's dedicated to deeper dives for training and recovery. And amidst all the other tools that we've just discussed, they are also making use of sensory deprivation as a recovery and learning aid. And sensory deprivation tanks which are usually sort of – they look like giant egg-shaped pods and they're filled with basically lukewarm sort of super salty bathwater that's very buoyant. So you go into them and you close the hatch and you're floating in pitch black darkness with no reference points.
What dev group is doing now is they're adding in twenty-first century biometrics into that experience. And so they are adding audio and visual feedback as well as biometrics. So again, brainwaves and heart rate variability. And they're able to steer operators into an optimum state of physiological and neurological relaxation and then introducing new content. One of the examples that they shared with us was the learning of foreign languages. In the past that's been a minimum of a six month cycle time. And so you take highly trained operators and you have them sitting on the bench learning a foreign language before being deployed. That's incredibly inefficient. By combining these sensory deprivation tanks with next generation biofeedback these guys have been able to reduce a six month cycle time in learning a foreign language down to six weeks. So that's basically cutting it in a quarter.
GLEESON: One of the interesting evolutions that the individual and the class goes through in the early stages of SEAL training is it goes from an individual sport where you're trying to be one of those small percentage of people that graduate very quickly to a team sport where you're learning to work together as a team. You're learning to have that team community, that bond and that shared sense of purpose, those shared values, that team ability so to speak to put the team before yourself. The most important element of our culture is team. We refer to the naval special warfare community as the teams. We refer to each other as team guys. That is part of our culture. It is team first and nothing else. And people who don't embody that mindset obviously don't make it very far through training. And that applies to any organization, really any relationship. Marriage, for example, is not a 50-50 thing. It's a 100 percent thing if you want it to be successful. And in a business organization that will thrive and will grow you have that level of trust, that level of team minded approach to every single thing you do. People do not stay isolated and siloed in their lane, in their bunker. They cross barriers. They collaborate. They build organically cross-functional teams that allow the organization to be agile, to be dynamic, to be collaborative, to be communicative. Those are the organizations that are resilient, that grow, that maintain a healthy financial status, and it's an easy correlation to draw between the SEAL teams and our importance of teamwork and trust to fulfill our vision just as it is to any organization that wants to compete and thrive in the twenty-first century.
GOGGINS: We're all going through a battle in our mind. A warrior is not a person that carries a gun. The biggest war you're ever going through is right between your own ears. It's in your mind. We're all going through a war in our mind and we have to callous our mind to fight that war and to win that war.
- The fact that U.S. Navy SEALs endure very rigorous training before entering the field is common knowledge, but just what happens at those facilities is less often discussed. In this video, former SEALs Brent Gleeson, David Goggins, and Eric Greitens (as well as authors Jesse Itzler and Jamie Wheal) talk about how the 18-month program is designed to build elite, disciplined operatives with immense mental toughness and resilience.
- Wheal dives into the cutting-edge technology and science that the navy uses to prepare these individuals. Itzler shares his experience meeting and briefly living with Goggins (who was also an Army Ranger) and the things he learned about pushing past perceived limits.
- Goggins dives into why you should leave your comfort zone, introduces the 40 percent rule, and explains why the biggest battle we all face is the one in our own minds. "Usually whatever's in front of you isn't as big as you make it out to be," says the SEAL turned motivational speaker. "We start to make these very small things enormous because we allow our minds to take control and go away from us. We have to regain control of our mind."
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The pandemic has many people questioning whether they ever want to go back to the office.
If one thing is clear about remote work, it's this: Many people prefer it and don't want their bosses to take it away.
When the pandemic forced office employees into lockdown and cut them off from spending in-person time with their colleagues, they almost immediately realized that they favor remote work over their traditional office routines and norms.
As remote workers of all ages contemplate their futures – and as some offices and schools start to reopen – many Americans are asking hard questions about whether they wish to return to their old lives, and what they're willing to sacrifice or endure in the years to come.
Even before the pandemic, there were people asking whether office life jibed with their aspirations.
We spent years studying “digital nomads" – workers who had left behind their homes, cities and most of their possessions to embark on what they call “location independent" lives. Our research taught us several important lessons about the conditions that push workers away from offices and major metropolitan areas, pulling them toward new lifestyles.
Legions of people now have the chance to reinvent their relationship to their work in much the same way.
Big-city bait and switch
Most digital nomads started out excited to work in career-track jobs for prestigious employers. Moving to cities like New York and London, they wanted to spend their free time meeting new people, going to museums and trying out new restaurants.
But then came the burnout.
Although these cities certainly host institutions that can inspire creativity and cultivate new relationships, digital nomads rarely had time to take advantage of them. Instead, high cost of living, time constraints and work demands contributed to an oppressive culture of materialism and workaholism.
Pauline, 28, who worked in advertising helping large corporate clients to develop brand identities through music, likened city life for professionals in her peer group to a “hamster wheel." (The names used in this article are pseudonyms, as required by research protocol.)
“The thing about New York is it's kind of like the battle of the busiest," she said. “It's like, 'Oh, you're so busy? No, I'm so busy.'"
Most of the digital nomads we studied had been lured into what urbanist Richard Florida termed “creative class" jobs – positions in design, tech, marketing and entertainment. They assumed this work would prove fulfilling enough to offset what they sacrificed in terms of time spent on social and creative pursuits.
Yet these digital nomads told us that their jobs were far less interesting and creative than they had been led to expect. Worse, their employers continued to demand that they be “all in" for work – and accept the controlling aspects of office life without providing the development, mentorship or meaningful work they felt they had been promised. As they looked to the future, they saw only more of the same.
Ellie, 33, a former business journalist who is now a freelance writer and entrepreneur, told us: “A lot of people don't have positive role models at work, so then it's sort of like 'Why am I climbing the ladder to try and get this job? This doesn't seem like a good way to spend the next twenty years.'"
By their late 20s to early 30s, digital nomads were actively researching ways to leave their career-track jobs in top-tier global cities.
Looking for a fresh start
Although they left some of the world's most glamorous cities, the digital nomads we studied were not homesteaders working from the wilderness; they needed access to the conveniences of contemporary life in order to be productive. Looking abroad, they quickly learned that places like Bali in Indonesia, and Chiang Mai in Thailand had the necessary infrastructure to support them at a fraction of the cost of their former lives.
With more and more companies now offering employees the choice to work remotely, there's no reason to think digital nomads have to travel to southeast Asia – or even leave the United States – to transform their work lives.
During the pandemic, some people have already migrated away from the nation's most expensive real estate markets to smaller cities and towns to be closer to nature or family. Many of these places still possess vibrant local cultures. As commutes to work disappear from daily life, such moves could leave remote workers with more available income and more free time.
The digital nomads we studied often used savings in time and money to try new things, like exploring side hustles. One recent study even found, somewhat paradoxically, that the sense of empowerment that came from embarking on a side hustle actually improved performance in workers' primary jobs.
The future of work, while not entirely remote, will undoubtedly offer more remote options to many more workers. Although some business leaders are still reluctant to accept their employees' desire to leave the office behind, local governments are embracing the trend, with several U.S. cities and states – along with countries around the world – developing plans to attract remote workers.
This migration, whether domestic or international, has the potential to enrich communities and cultivate more satisfying work lives.
The potential of CRISPR technology is incredible, but the threats are too serious to ignore.
- CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) is a revolutionary technology that gives scientists the ability to alter DNA. On the one hand, this tool could mean the elimination of certain diseases. On the other, there are concerns (both ethical and practical) about its misuse and the yet-unknown consequences of such experimentation.
- "The technique could be misused in horrible ways," says counter-terrorism expert Richard A. Clarke. Clarke lists biological weapons as one of the potential threats, "Threats for which we don't have any known antidote." CRISPR co-inventor, biochemist Jennifer Doudna, echos the concern, recounting a nightmare involving the technology, eugenics, and a meeting with Adolf Hitler.
- Should this kind of tool even exist? Do the positives outweigh the potential dangers? How could something like this ever be regulated, and should it be? These questions and more are considered by Doudna, Clarke, evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins, psychologist Steven Pinker, and physician Siddhartha Mukherjee.
Why mega-eruptions like the ones that covered North America in ash are the least of your worries.
- The supervolcano under Yellowstone produced three massive eruptions over the past few million years.
- Each eruption covered much of what is now the western United States in an ash layer several feet deep.
- The last eruption was 640,000 years ago, but that doesn't mean the next eruption is overdue.
The end of the world as we know it
Panoramic view of Yellowstone National Park
Image: Heinrich Berann for the National Park Service – public domain
Of the many freak ways to shuffle off this mortal coil – lightning strikes, shark bites, falling pianos – here's one you can safely scratch off your worry list: an outbreak of the Yellowstone supervolcano.
As the map below shows, previous eruptions at Yellowstone were so massive that the ash fall covered most of what is now the western United States. A similar event today would not only claim countless lives directly, but also create enough subsidiary disruption to kill off global civilisation as we know it. A relatively recent eruption of the Toba supervolcano in Indonesia may have come close to killing off the human species (see further below).
However, just because a scenario is grim does not mean that it is likely (insert topical political joke here). In this case, the doom mongers claiming an eruption is 'overdue' are wrong. Yellowstone is not a library book or an oil change. Just because the previous mega-eruption happened long ago doesn't mean the next one is imminent.
Ash beds of North America
Ash beds deposited by major volcanic eruptions in North America.
Image: USGS – public domain
This map shows the location of the Yellowstone plateau and the ash beds deposited by its three most recent major outbreaks, plus two other eruptions – one similarly massive, the other the most recent one in North America.
The Huckleberry Ridge eruption occurred 2.1 million years ago. It ejected 2,450 km3 (588 cubic miles) of material, making it the largest known eruption in Yellowstone's history and in fact the largest eruption in North America in the past few million years.
This is the oldest of the three most recent caldera-forming eruptions of the Yellowstone hotspot. It created the Island Park Caldera, which lies partially in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming and westward into Idaho. Ash from this eruption covered an area from southern California to North Dakota, and southern Idaho to northern Texas.
About 1.3 million years ago, the Mesa Falls eruption ejected 280 km3 (67 cubic miles) of material and created the Henry's Fork Caldera, located in Idaho, west of Yellowstone.
It was the smallest of the three major Yellowstone eruptions, both in terms of material ejected and area covered: 'only' most of present-day Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas and Nebraska, and about half of South Dakota.
The Lava Creek eruption was the most recent major eruption of Yellowstone: about 640,000 years ago. It was the second-largest eruption in North America in the past few million years, creating the Yellowstone Caldera.
It ejected only about 1,000 km3 (240 cubic miles) of material, i.e. less than half of the Huckleberry Ridge eruption. However, its debris is spread out over a significantly wider area: basically, Huckleberry Ridge plus larger slices of both Canada and Mexico, plus most of Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Missouri.
This eruption occurred about 760,000 years ago. It was centered on southern California, where it created the Long Valley Caldera, and spewed out 580 km3 (139 cubic miles) of material. This makes it North America's third-largest eruption of the past few million years.
The material ejected by this eruption is known as the Bishop ash bed, and covers the central and western parts of the Lava Creek ash bed.
Mount St Helens
The eruption of Mount St Helens in 1980 was the deadliest and most destructive volcanic event in U.S. history: it created a mile-wide crater, killed 57 people and created economic damage in the neighborhood of $1 billion.
Yet by Yellowstone standards, it was tiny: Mount St Helens only ejected 0.25 km3 (0.06 cubic miles) of material, most of the ash settling in a relatively narrow band across Washington State and Idaho. By comparison, the Lava Creek eruption left a large swathe of North America in up to two metres of debris.
The difference between quakes and faults
The volume of dense rock equivalent (DRE) ejected by the Huckleberry Ridge event dwarfs all other North American eruptions. It is itself overshadowed by the DRE ejected at the most recent eruption at Toba (present-day Indonesia). This was one of the largest known eruptions ever and a relatively recent one: only 75,000 years ago. It is thought to have caused a global volcanic winter which lasted up to a decade and may be responsible for the bottleneck in human evolution: around that time, the total human population suddenly and drastically plummeted to between 1,000 and 10,000 breeding pairs.
Image: USGS – public domain
So, what are the chances of something that massive happening anytime soon? The aforementioned mongers of doom often claim that major eruptions occur at intervals of 600,000 years and point out that the last one was 640,000 years ago. Except that (a) the first interval was about 200,000 years longer, (b) two intervals is not a lot to base a prediction on, and (c) those intervals don't really mean anything anyway. Not in the case of volcanic eruptions, at least.
Earthquakes can be 'overdue' because the stress on fault lines is built up consistently over long periods, which means quakes can be predicted with a relative degree of accuracy. But this is not how volcanoes behave. They do not accumulate magma at constant rates. And the subterranean pressure that causes the magma to erupt does not follow a schedule.
What's more, previous super-eruptions do not necessarily imply future ones. Scientists are not convinced that there ever will be another big eruption at Yellowstone. Smaller eruptions, however, are much likelier. Since the Lava Creek eruption, there have been about 30 smaller outbreaks at Yellowstone, the last lava flow being about 70,000 years ago.
As for the immediate future (give or take a century): the magma chamber beneath Yellowstone is only 5 percent to 15 percent molten. Most scientists agree that is as un-alarming as it sounds. And that its statistically more relevant to worry about death by lightning, shark, or piano.
Strange Maps #1041
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Measuring a person's movements and poses, smart clothes could be used for athletic training, rehabilitation, or health-monitoring.
In recent years there have been exciting breakthroughs in wearable technologies, like smartwatches that can monitor your breathing and blood oxygen levels.
But what about a wearable that can detect how you move as you do a physical activity or play a sport, and could potentially even offer feedback on how to improve your technique?
And, as a major bonus, what if the wearable were something you'd actually already be wearing, like a shirt of a pair of socks?
That's the idea behind a new set of MIT-designed clothing that use special fibers to sense a person's movement via touch. Among other things, the researchers showed that their clothes can actually determine things like if someone is sitting, walking, or doing particular poses.
The group from MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab (CSAIL) says that their clothes could be used for athletic training and rehabilitation. With patients' permission, they could even help passively monitor the health of residents in assisted-care facilities and determine if, for example, someone has fallen or is unconscious.
The researchers have developed a range of prototypes, from socks and gloves to a full vest. The team's "tactile electronics" use a mix of more typical textile fibers alongside a small amount of custom-made functional fibers that sense pressure from the person wearing the garment.
According to CSAIL graduate student Yiyue Luo, a key advantage of the team's design is that, unlike many existing wearable electronics, theirs can be incorporated into traditional large-scale clothing production. The machine-knitted tactile textiles are soft, stretchable, breathable, and can take a wide range of forms.
"Traditionally it's been hard to develop a mass-production wearable that provides high-accuracy data across a large number of sensors," says Luo, lead author on a new paper about the project that is appearing in this month's edition of Nature Electronics. "When you manufacture lots of sensor arrays, some of them will not work and some of them will work worse than others, so we developed a self-correcting mechanism that uses a self-supervised machine learning algorithm to recognize and adjust when certain sensors in the design are off-base."
The team's clothes have a range of capabilities. Their socks predict motion by looking at how different sequences of tactile footprints correlate to different poses as the user transitions from one pose to another. The full-sized vest can also detect the wearers' pose, activity, and the texture of the contacted surfaces.
The authors imagine a coach using the sensor to analyze people's postures and give suggestions on improvement. It could also be used by an experienced athlete to record their posture so that beginners can learn from them. In the long term, they even imagine that robots could be trained to learn how to do different activities using data from the wearables.
"Imagine robots that are no longer tactilely blind, and that have 'skins' that can provide tactile sensing just like we have as humans," says corresponding author Wan Shou, a postdoc at CSAIL. "Clothing with high-resolution tactile sensing opens up a lot of exciting new application areas for researchers to explore in the years to come."
The paper was co-written by MIT professors Antonio Torralba, Wojciech Matusik, and Tomás Palacios, alongside PhD students Yunzhu Li, Pratyusha Sharma, and Beichen Li; postdoc Kui Wu; and research engineer Michael Foshey.
The work was partially funded by Toyota Research Institute.