Mastering an Art Leads to Fewer Choices
Sheena Iyengar: Well certainly not\r\n having any choice–having your entire life dictated by others... You \r\nknow, like, none of us would choose–no matter where we are in the \r\nworld–would choose to you know become a member of Orwell’s "Nineteen \r\nEighty-Four" world, but how much choice is really the question. I mean \r\nwe know that some choice makes you better off than no choice. Now do we\r\n get better off if we go from a lot of choice versus a few choices? And\r\n there I think the answer is much, much, much more complicated. If you \r\ntruly have expertise–and expertise can be say a chess master who has \r\nreally mastered something or an artist or a musician of some sort you \r\nknow if you give a jazz musician... Once the jazz musician learns all \r\nthe fundamentals they can keep track of a lot of choices in an instant. \r\n A chess master can keep track of more choices than the number of stars \r\nin the galaxy within an instant, but these are people that have truly \r\nlearned and mastered the choices that they have and how to deal with \r\nthose choices over a very, very long period of training, so essentially \r\nwhat they’re really doing is ruling out all the irrelevant choices and \r\nonly zeroing in on the most relevant, useful choices at the moment. So \r\nmost of the time when we are confronted by more, rather than a few, \r\nchoices we’re often novices and so we don’t really know how to \r\ndifferentiate these various options. We also don’t always know what we \r\nwant. And in those cases it can actually make us worse off because it’s \r\nactually easier to figure out what you want and to figure out how the \r\noptions differ if you have about a handful of them than if you have a \r\nhundred of them.
Most of the time, when we're confronted by an abundance of choices, it's because we’re novices and don’t know how to differentiate between them.
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For Damien Echols, tattoos are part of his existential armor.
- In prison Damien Echols was known by his number SK931, not his name, and had his hair sheared off. Stripped of his identity, the only thing he had left was his skin.
- This is why he began tattooing things that are meaningful to him — to carry a "suit of armor" made up the images of the people and things that have significance to him, from his friends to talismans.
- Echols believes that all places are imbued with divinity: "If you interact with New York City as if there's an intelligence behind... then it will behave towards you the same way.".
She met mere mortals with and without the Vatican's approval.
- For centuries, the Virgin Mary has appeared to the faithful, requesting devotion and promising comfort.
- These maps show the geography of Marian apparitions – the handful approved by the Vatican, and many others.
- Historically, Europe is where most apparitions have been reported, but the U.S. is pretty fertile ground too.
Even some teachers suffer from anxiety about math.
I teach people how to teach math, and I've been working in this field for 30 years. Across those decades, I've met many people who suffer from varying degrees of math trauma – a form of debilitating mental shutdown when it comes to doing mathematics.
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