Jean-Pierre Rosso on The Future of Multinational Corporations

Question: Are corporations becoming more powerful than governments?

Jean-Pierre Rosso: I don’t know whether we can put in terms of powerful, but there is certainly, I have a way to easily work across borders and look at themselves as global companies, global citizens and they all deal with whatever specificity there is in each country, in different market point of view,  from a legislation point of view and they all deal with it, and the losers, the loser nations are those who are not going to make it easy for those companies to invest, because they create jobs and they create economic growth. So as we said earlier, when they look at this as an opportunity and not a threat, then they can win, if they try to protect their markets, protect their companies from competition, they loose in the long term, may be nice for an electoral point of view in the short term, but they are going to loose on the long term, so you can fight this. I think that the nation cannot fight the fact that global companies are expanding globally and we will invest when wherever they have a chance to return.

Question: Should giant corporations be governed around the world?

Jean-Pierre_Rosso: Well, you have to, I think you have to have a base, maybe I am old fashioned, but I think you have to have a base, because if you are US based or French based or German based whatever Chinese based, I think this is the anchor, this is the sort of the what shapes the values of the company, I think it is very important to have a personality and So having said this I think what companies are doing which you see more and more is that they have much more open boards, than use to have every company is trying to have a US company is trying to have European, Asians, Latin Americans and so you are going to see I think diversity on boards ever increasing to precisely sort of a represent all those differences at the top of the corporation, you also seeing diversity in executives origins more and more and something I was totally out of sight  30 years ago, having a CEO from another country run a company in a different country is much more common now, and more importantly other executives in the [inaudible] as well, so you are going to see more and more of that.

Question: Do large corporations have a role at Davos?

Jean-PierreRosso: Everybody has a role in Davos, the way I see the role of [a] corporation is that they are the component that has to engage into the dialogue and engage into driving some of the initiatives that we have and the reason is that it is not only the fact that corporations have resources in terms of money, but they also have skills, competencies that are critical to the success of those initiatives, I gave you an example, we have launched in Davos an on water and because water is becoming a very big issue. Some could argue that, it is a much bigger issue than oil because no one has found the real alterative to water and it is unlikely that anybody will and it is life, water is life, go to the museum Natural history here in New York and water is life, so water is very important and but it is a company is that, I will not name, but companies that are in businesses they use a lot of water or for which water is a key ingredient in their products, that have division and wisdom to say hey this is something important, so they engage themselves and sort of with the typical business approach they want to look at some initiative [inaudible] say, okay what are the objectives? what he is trying to achieve? what are the milestones towards this, and  sort of business approach to solving something, this is where business is a key role, because they have greater ability, that may be unbiased  because I come from business, but they  have a greater ability to achieve results and they have a greater results orientation at least, let’s put it  this way by the nature of what they are, than any other groups in society.

Question: Should there be global regulation on water?

Jean-Pierre_Rosso: It is a good question, I think that, I think my first reaction is to say first of all, when we say global we cannot just always take there is only one thing,  global is everything, and particularly water is also very local and then always the water issues in central Asia or the water issues in China are different or in so in different- different parts of the world. And so you have to look in my view at sort of the sub system that is where water is critical and it can be a jeopardical topic between countries that have to share the same world resource, so that is one focus and in that particular case you know, you want to manage this resources well and equitably, so that is one issue, when it comes to other regions will have a different approach to different issues related to water, on the global basis, so can you govern this in a global basis. I don’t know, I think that is a complicated objective but, we are embarked, we just started this initiative, so we will address exactly that in a [inaudible] okay what are the key issues how can they be dealt with and should there be a segmentation in this water issues, for example the water issues, the water for agriculture is an issue in itself, okay agriculture consumes 70% of water, so main use of water goes to agriculture, is there a better way to manage water for agriculture in years today. So that is one segment of it, is there a better way to use water in manufacturing processes, that is a different topic. So I think what you need is to identify those sub groups and work on those, see what progress you can make, now I don’t think you need an overall government to do this because that is more bureaucracy what you need is a stake holders, who of that particular subsistent will get together and say let’s address this, , so you need, if it is water for agriculture you need whoever has to stake in this issue and participate in this issue to work on it, so again here this is the multi stake holder approach, because you are going to need government, you are going to need certainly agriculture the whole field of the people deal with agriculture from putting the seed in the ground to delivering the donut to the consumer is a whole chain here, so just going to have to deal with that as an entity to try to deal with it so I think it is a lot of those governance system that have to be established amongst the stake holders to address the various segments of that issue.

Date Recorded: 03/19/2008

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An organism found in dirt may lead to an anxiety vaccine, say scientists

Can dirt help us fight off stress? Groundbreaking new research shows how.

University of Colorado Boulder
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  • New research identifies a bacterium that helps block anxiety.
  • Scientists say this can lead to drugs for first responders and soldiers, preventing PTSD and other mental issues.
  • The finding builds on the hygiene hypothesis, first proposed in 1989.

Are modern societies trying too hard to be clean, at the detriment to public health? Scientists discovered that a microorganism living in dirt can actually be good for us, potentially helping the body to fight off stress. Harnessing its powers can lead to a "stress vaccine".

Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder found that the fatty 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid from the soil-residing bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae aids immune cells in blocking pathways that increase inflammation and the ability to combat stress.

The study's senior author and Integrative Physiology Professor Christopher Lowry described this fat as "one of the main ingredients" in the "special sauce" that causes the beneficial effects of the bacterium.

The finding goes hand in hand with the "hygiene hypothesis," initially proposed in 1989 by the British scientist David Strachan. He maintained that our generally sterile modern world prevents children from being exposed to certain microorganisms, resulting in compromised immune systems and greater incidences of asthma and allergies.

Contemporary research fine-tuned the hypothesis, finding that not interacting with so-called "old friends" or helpful microbes in the soil and the environment, rather than the ones that cause illnesses, is what's detrimental. In particular, our mental health could be at stake.

"The idea is that as humans have moved away from farms and an agricultural or hunter-gatherer existence into cities, we have lost contact with organisms that served to regulate our immune system and suppress inappropriate inflammation," explained Lowry. "That has put us at higher risk for inflammatory disease and stress-related psychiatric disorders."

University of Colorado Boulder

Christopher Lowry

This is not the first study on the subject from Lowry, who published previous work showing the connection between being exposed to healthy bacteria and mental health. He found that being raised with animals and dust in a rural environment helps children develop more stress-proof immune systems. Such kids were also likely to be less at risk for mental illnesses than people living in the city without pets.

Lowry's other work also pointed out that the soil-based bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae acts like an antidepressant when injected into rodents. It alters their behavior and has lasting anti-inflammatory effects on the brain, according to the press release from the University of Colorado Boulder. Prolonged inflammation can lead to such stress-related disorders as PTSD.

The new study from Lowry and his team identified why that worked by pinpointing the specific fatty acid responsible. They showed that when the 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid gets into cells, it works like a lock, attaching itself to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). This allows it to block a number of key pathways responsible for inflammation. Pre-treating the cells with the acid (or lipid) made them withstand inflammation better.

Lowry thinks this understanding can lead to creating a "stress vaccine" that can be given to people in high-stress jobs, like first responders or soldiers. The vaccine can prevent the psychological effects of stress.

What's more, this friendly bacterium is not the only potentially helpful organism we can find in soil.

"This is just one strain of one species of one type of bacterium that is found in the soil but there are millions of other strains in soils," said Lowry. "We are just beginning to see the tip of the iceberg in terms of identifying the mechanisms through which they have evolved to keep us healthy. It should inspire awe in all of us."

Check out the study published in the journal Psychopharmacology.