11 ways to stop procrastinating—for good
We're all guilty of it, but there are ways to curb your procrastination and be more productive.
TIM FERRISS: Alright. Procrastination. Let's talk about it. It's a big topic. And by the way we all face it. It is an ever-present, evergreen issue for a reason and even the people you see on magazine covers, most of them – there are a few mutants, but they all have things they put off and there are a few different tactics, approaches that I found very helpful that I borrowed from whether it's guests on the Tim Ferriss Show or people I interviewed for "Tools of Titans," my newest book. Here we go, so down the list.
DAN ARIELY: So the first I think mistake is that we pursue momentary happiness rather than longer term happiness. We do the things that will make us laugh out loud today kind of, not always laugh out loud but kind of like that. And we don't do the things that are difficult and complex and challenging but give us a very different sense of happiness. Think about something like running a marathon. You don't see anybody happy. If you came as an alien and you imaged people's brains and you looked at their facial expressions as they're running a marathon you would say somebody's punishing them. They are paying for something terrible they've done and this is how they're paying their debt to society. It is kind of miserable, but it's also meaningful and creates a sense of achievement and so on. So we're pursuing momentary pleasure rather than truly understanding the depth of what happiness is or what meaning is.
FERRISS: Prolific music producers like Rick Rubin who's legendary and it all comes down to tiny homework assignments. So Rick, if he has a stuck artist for instance he will say can you get me one word or one line that you might like for this song that you're working on by tomorrow. Is that possible. Mini, mini homework assignments. So with a creative project in the beginning that's one. It's related to a piece of advice that I got from Neil Strauss and that is lower your standards. So he doesn't believe in writer's block. He says your standards are just too high. You're creating performance anxiety for yourself. So the advice that I got from another writer which matches with that is two crappy pages per day. So a lot of people are like I'm going to kill it. I need an ambitious goal. Let me do 1,500 words, 2,000 words per day for this book I'm working on. Well, there's a very high probability that you're going to fall short of that and then you will get demoralized. Then you'll get intimidated by the task and then you will start procrastinating. So make the hurdle. Make the success threshold really, really low. That's what I've done for my last three books is two crappy pages per day. That's all I need. If I don't end up using them that's fine. I just need to get out two crappy pages. If you're going to exercise and you're making a New Year's resolution, don't make it an hour a day, four times a week. No, no, no, no, no. Five to ten minutes at the gym three times a week, plenty. And in all those cases you will feel successful because you've checked your box for success. And then very often you'll exceed that for extra credit. You'll be well, I'm already at the gym. I'll go for an extra ten minutes. Well, I'm already flossing my teeth. We'll do an extra four. Well, I've already hit my two pages but I'm feeling great and I'm in the flow. Maybe I'll do ten. Maybe I'll do 20. But it prevents you from feeling like a failure. This is very, very important. That is what derails a lot of people.
JILLIAN MICHAELS: First we have to appreciate that there's a very big difference between inspiration and motivation. And inspiration is great. Inspiration is a source of, a catalyst if you will of change that comes from outside of you. So it could be an episode of Big Think that you watched. It could be a song you heard, a book you read, a memoir that you saw on who knows, some episode of television. And you say you know what? I'm inspired. If they can do it, I can do it and it gives you the little jumpstart on the engine. The car gets going and then in a month, maybe two, all of a sudden you kind of peter out and the battery dies again. And that's because you need motivation to stay in motion. And motivation is that why that comes from inside of you.
FERRISS: So you could use technique, for instance, like the Pomodoro Technique and people have interpreted this in different ways, but it effectively means sprints of say 20 to 25. Some people do 23 minutes where you are like all right, I know I'm not going to get this done, but I'm going to sprint for 20 minutes, 25 minutes and then take a five minute break. Once you have these positive constraints which, by the way, for a creative person very important to have positive constraints. Being able to do anything you want all the time is a recipe for disaster and paralysis and procrastination.
BARBARA OAKLEY: So I teach a course, Learning How To Learn, that's actually the world's largest massive open online course. We have something like two million people. And the Pomodoro Technique is the most popular technique. I hear from literally thousands of people and it's so simple. All you have to do is turn off all distractions so no little ringy dingies on your cell phone or anything like that. On your computer you want to turn off any kind of messages that might arise, set a timer for 25 minutes and then just focus as intently as you can for those 25 minutes. And this is a key thing when you're done you reward yourself and you reward yourself by relaxing a little bit and doing something completely different.
CHARLES DUHIGG: You can't find some work reward that's going to take the place of procrastination. If the reward of procrastination is that you get to spend five minutes distracted by Facebook and sort of see these updates of your friends. You have to allow yourself to do that. That has to be part of your workday. If you need five minutes every hour to look at tweets or to just surf the internet, you need to schedule that into your schedule. Allow yourself to do that because when people start procrastinating what they've done is they've tried to ignore that urge. They've tried to deny themselves time on Facebook or time surfing the web. And then all of a sudden it erupts and they go and they say I'm just going to check for five minutes and 45 minutes later they've lost all of this time. It's because they haven't accommodated that need. Once a habit exists you can't just quelch it. You can't pretend it's not there. You have to sort of accommodate this need in your life. And so the answer is to give yourself five minutes every hour. In fact you can set an alarm. At the end of every hour give yourself five minutes to surf the web. Because if you allow yourself five minutes every hour it won't explode into 45 minutes because you've been trying to suppress it.
ARIELY: The literature there's a term for this. It's called structured procrastination where you basically do lots of little things that give you the sense that you're making progress without actually making any progress. It's very easy to get ourselves to do lots of little tasks that gives us momentary slight joy. Oh, I erased another email. Oh, I responded to that email and so on. Without thinking long term.
MICHAELS: There should always be a look towards the future. We are always growing and evolving and progressing. There is no finish line in life ultimately and I think that's tough for some to accept because we think okay, I crossed the finish line, now what. You're not dead. There's more work to do. Look at that.
ARIELY: In long term thinking it's really what causes real joy. And it's not easy, right. It's not easy. I get about 300 emails a day. I wake up, I open my laptop. It's always a moment of slight depression. Oh, my goodness. I have to deal with all of this. And I could spend my whole day doing email. And email here's an analogy. There's an analogy for all the things that you have to do but they're not giving you a true sense of accomplishment. And the real challenge – and it's not easy is to carve time to do the things that you would say at the end of three months, six months, a year and so on will give me a sense that I'm actually contributing doing something useful. So personally I do this with writing. It's very easy to spend a whole day responding to email. I try to protect some time and say I'm going to write. I'm going to actually stop. I'm going to think. It will take me awhile. Sometimes I'll write something I said the whole time was useless. I didn't really progress enough but from time to time there is progress and over time it creates a body of knowledge that you say this is actually a very useful thing.
FERRISS: The next way that you can apply positive constraint is by building in incentives and consequences. All this means is make yourself socially accountable. Having someone else to hold your feet to the fire and keep you accountable for whatever goal you've set for yourself. That could be a check in via phone. It could be a bet so a financial component which is very effective. And I think in part not because of the money you will win but the money you will lose. People work a lot harder to counteract loss aversion it turns out.
ARIELY: The beauty of human nature is that lots of things motivate us and sense of accomplishment and achievement. Our title, our connection to work. Our connection to people at work. Competing with other people. All of those things motivate us. When we write a motivation equation we would write motivation equals yes, money is important but so is achievement, sense of progress, competition, dah, dah, dah, dah. And the question is how do we use all of them. How do we use all of them to create motivation.
DUHIGG: Why are some people so much better at maintaining their focus and not reacting and not getting distracted by all these things. It's because ahead of time they've envisioned what they expect to see. They've envisioned what they expect to occur. So on the subway when they're riding to work they think about what is this day going to be like. I know that I'm going to this meeting. What do I expect to occur at that meeting. And so when they walk in and they're boss asks them some unexpected question their brain almost subconsciously says I didn't expect that question to occur. This isn't matching the picture in my brain of what I anticipated so I need to put that question off. I need to say can we take that offline and I'll answer that later. Or they have a picture in their brain of what it's going to be like to deal with the kids and to make dinner. There's some type of expectation and so as a result when their pocket buzzes and an email comes in they can say I can't handle this right now. I need to give myself five minutes and I'll deal with this later.
MICHAELS: Remove negative impacts in your environment and that's one of the things that's so good about actual things is that if you change them they stay changed. There's no fighting back. But do some deep self-reflection and consider getting into some counseling to look at those things and get the tools to turn them around.
FERRISS: So those are a few things that you could utilize and I'll give you one kind of wacky one that is from Mike Birbiglia whose one of the most successful comedians on the planet. When he was procrastinating working on his screenplay, his latest screenplay, he noticed that when he was accountable to someone else, he had a meeting, he was never late. He was always early. But when he had a commitment to himself to write he might put it off for hours. So he took a post it and he put it next to his bed – and this sounds ludicrous, but it said Mike – and I think it was three exclamation points. You have a meeting with yourself at 7:00 a.m. at Café whatever it was where he tended to work. And that actually for whatever weird quirk of human psychology got him to stay on track for his meeting with himself to write his screenplay. So that's another Jedi mind trick that you might try on yourself. There are many tools in the toolkit but keep it small, keep it defined, rig it so you can win and when in doubt figure out a way to create a loss or shame if you don't actually tackle your task and achieve some type of measurable goal by a specific point in time.
- Most of us feel guilty or lazy when we put things off until a later date or time, but procrastination is normal and happens to everyone. The key is not to eliminate the word from your vocabulary, but to find ways to work and rest smarter so that tasks get done.
- In this video, investor Tim Ferriss, behavioral economist Dan Ariely, health and wellness expert Jillian Michaels, and others share 11 tips for mastering procrastination including focusing on long-term happiness, understanding the differences between inspiration and motivation, trying the Pomodoro technique, and removing the things that are distracting you from the project at hand.
- One interesting tip shared by Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Charles Duhigg is to build procrastination into your workflow as a reward. "If you need five minutes every hour to look at tweets or to just surf the internet, you need to schedule that into your schedule." According to Duhigg, it's when we try to ignore that urge completely that things fall apart.
- The Surprising Reasons You're Procrastinating, And How Fight It ›
- Pay Your Future Self Forward, Stop Procrastinating - Big Think ›
- Break Your Procrastination Habit in 9 Easy Steps - Big Think ›
- How to stop procrastinating with your online work - Big Think ›
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What makes some people more likely to shiver than others?
Eating veggies is good for you. Now we can stop debating how much we should eat.
- A massive new study confirms that five servings of fruit and veggies a day can lower the risk of death.
- The maximum benefit is found at two servings of fruit and three of veggies—anything more offers no extra benefit according to the researchers.
- Not all fruits and veggies are equal. Leafy greens are better for you than starchy corn and potatoes.
An open letter predicts that a massive wall of rock is about to plunge into Barry Arm Fjord in Alaska.
- A remote area visited by tourists and cruises, and home to fishing villages, is about to be visited by a devastating tsunami.
- A wall of rock exposed by a receding glacier is about crash into the waters below.
- Glaciers hold such areas together — and when they're gone, bad stuff can be left behind.
The Barry Glacier gives its name to Alaska's Barry Arm Fjord, and a new open letter forecasts trouble ahead.
Thanks to global warming, the glacier has been retreating, so far removing two-thirds of its support for a steep mile-long slope, or scarp, containing perhaps 500 million cubic meters of material. (Think the Hoover Dam times several hundred.) The slope has been moving slowly since 1957, but scientists say it's become an avalanche waiting to happen, maybe within the next year, and likely within 20. When it does come crashing down into the fjord, it could set in motion a frightening tsunami overwhelming the fjord's normally peaceful waters .
The Barry Arm Fjord
Camping on the fjord's Black Sand Beach
Image source: Matt Zimmerman
The Barry Arm Fjord is a stretch of water between the Harriman Fjord and the Port Wills Fjord, located at the northwest corner of the well-known Prince William Sound. It's a beautiful area, home to a few hundred people supporting the local fishing industry, and it's also a popular destination for tourists — its Black Sand Beach is one of Alaska's most scenic — and cruise ships.
Not Alaska’s first watery rodeo, but likely the biggest
Image source: whrc.org
There have been at least two similar events in the state's recent history, though not on such a massive scale. On July 9, 1958, an earthquake nearby caused 40 million cubic yards of rock to suddenly slide 2,000 feet down into Lituya Bay, producing a tsunami whose peak waves reportedly reached 1,720 feet in height. By the time the wall of water reached the mouth of the bay, it was still 75 feet high. At Taan Fjord in 2015, a landslide caused a tsunami that crested at 600 feet. Both of these events thankfully occurred in sparsely populated areas, so few fatalities occurred.
The Barry Arm event will be larger than either of these by far.
"This is an enormous slope — the mass that could fail weighs over a billion tonnes," said geologist Dave Petley, speaking to Earther. "The internal structure of that rock mass, which will determine whether it collapses, is very complex. At the moment we don't know enough about it to be able to forecast its future behavior."
Outside of Alaska, on the west coast of Greenland, a landslide-produced tsunami towered 300 feet high, obliterating a fishing village in its path.
What the letter predicts for Barry Arm Fjord
Moving slowly at first...
Image source: whrc.org
"The effects would be especially severe near where the landslide enters the water at the head of Barry Arm. Additionally, areas of shallow water, or low-lying land near the shore, would be in danger even further from the source. A minor failure may not produce significant impacts beyond the inner parts of the fiord, while a complete failure could be destructive throughout Barry Arm, Harriman Fiord, and parts of Port Wells. Our initial results show complex impacts further from the landslide than Barry Arm, with over 30 foot waves in some distant bays, including Whittier."
The discovery of the impeding landslide began with an observation by the sister of geologist Hig Higman of Ground Truth, an organization in Seldovia, Alaska. Artist Valisa Higman was vacationing in the area and sent her brother some photos of worrying fractures she noticed in the slope, taken while she was on a boat cruising the fjord.
Higman confirmed his sister's hunch via available satellite imagery and, digging deeper, found that between 2009 and 2015 the slope had moved 600 feet downhill, leaving a prominent scar.
Ohio State's Chunli Dai unearthed a connection between the movement and the receding of the Barry Glacier. Comparison of the Barry Arm slope with other similar areas, combined with computer modeling of the possible resulting tsunamis, led to the publication of the group's letter.
While the full group of signatories from 14 organizations and institutions has only been working on the situation for a month, the implications were immediately clear. The signers include experts from Ohio State University, the University of Southern California, and the Anchorage and Fairbanks campuses of the University of Alaska.
Once informed of the open letter's contents, the Alaska's Department of Natural Resources immediately released a warning that "an increasingly likely landslide could generate a wave with devastating effects on fishermen and recreationalists."
How do you prepare for something like this?
Image source: whrc.org
The obvious question is what can be done to prepare for the landslide and tsunami? For one thing, there's more to understand about the upcoming event, and the researchers lay out their plan in the letter:
"To inform and refine hazard mitigation efforts, we would like to pursue several lines of investigation: Detect changes in the slope that might forewarn of a landslide, better understand what could trigger a landslide, and refine tsunami model projections. By mapping the landslide and nearby terrain, both above and below sea level, we can more accurately determine the basic physical dimensions of the landslide. This can be paired with GPS and seismic measurements made over time to see how the slope responds to changes in the glacier and to events like rainstorms and earthquakes. Field and satellite data can support near-real time hazard monitoring, while computer models of landslide and tsunami scenarios can help identify specific places that are most at risk."
In the letter, the authors reached out to those living in and visiting the area, asking, "What specific questions are most important to you?" and "What could be done to reduce the danger to people who want to visit or work in Barry Arm?" They also invited locals to let them know about any changes, including even small rock-falls and landslides.
The famous cognition test was reworked for cuttlefish. They did better than expected.
- Scientists recently ran the Stanford marshmallow experiment on cuttlefish and found they were pretty good at it.
- The test subjects could wait up to two minutes for a better tasting treat.
- The study suggests cuttlefish are smarter than you think but isn't the final word on how bright they are.
Proof that some people are less patient than invertebrates<iframe width="730" height="430" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/H1yhGClUJ0U" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe><p> The common cuttlefish is a small cephalopod notable for producing sepia ink and relative intelligence for an invertebrate. Studies have shown them to be capable of remembering important details from previous foraging experiences, and to adjust their foraging strategies in response to changing circumstances. </p><p>In a new study, published in <a href="https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2020.3161" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">The Proceedings of the Royal Society B</a>, researchers demonstrated that the critters have mental capacities previously thought limited to vertebrates.</p><p>After determining that cuttlefish are willing to eat raw king prawns but prefer a live grass shrimp, the researchers trained them to associate certain symbols on see-through containers with a different level of accessibility. One symbol meant the cuttlefish could get into the box and eat the food inside right away, another meant there would be a delay before it opened, and the last indicated the container could not be opened.</p><p>The cephalopods were then trained to understand that upon entering one container, the food in the other would be removed. This training also introduced them to the idea of varying delay times for the boxes with the second <a href="https://www.sciencealert.com/cuttlefish-can-pass-a-cognitive-test-designed-for-children" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">symbol</a>. </p><p>Two of the cuttlefish recruited for the study "dropped out," at this point, but the remaining six—named Mica, Pinto, Demi, Franklin, Jebidiah, and Rogelio—all caught on to how things worked pretty quickly.</p><p>It was then that the actual experiment could begin. The cuttlefish were presented with two containers: one that could be opened immediately with a raw king prawn, and one that held a live grass shrimp that would only open after a delay. The subjects could always see both containers and had the ability to go to the immediate access option if they grew tired of waiting for the other. The poor control group was faced with a box that never opened and one they could get into right away.</p><p>In the end, the cuttlefish demonstrated that they would wait anywhere between 50 and 130 seconds for the better treat. This is the same length of time that some primates and birds have shown themselves to be able to wait for.</p><p>Further tests of the subject's cognitive abilities—they were tested to see how long it took them to associate a symbol with a prize and then on how long it took them to catch on when the symbols were switched—showed a relationship between how long a cuttlefish was willing to wait and how quickly it learned the associations. </p>
All of this is interesting, but what use could it possibly have?<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNTcxNzY2MS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY2MTM0MzYyMH0.lKFLPfutlflkzr_NM6WmnosKM1rU6UEIHWlyzWhYQNM/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C10%2C0%2C88&height=700" id="77c04" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="7eb9d5b2d890496756a69fb45ceac87c" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" data-width="1245" data-height="700" />
A diagram showing the experimental set up. On the left is the control condition, on the right is the experimental condition.
Credit: Alexandra K. Schnell et al., 2021<p> As you can probably guess, the ability to delay gratification as part of a plan is not the most common thing in the animal kingdom. While humans, apes, some birds, and dogs can do it, less intelligent animals can't. </p><p>While it is reasonably simple to devise a hypothesis for why social humans, tool-making chimps, or hunting birds are able to delay gratification, the cuttlefish is neither social, a toolmaker, or is it hunting anything particularly <a href="https://gizmodo.com/cuttlefish-are-able-to-wait-for-a-reward-1846392756" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">intelligent</a>. Why they evolved this capacity is up for debate. </p><p>Lead author Alexandra Schnell of the University of Cambridge discussed their speculations on the evolutionary advantage cuttlefish might get out of this skill with <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-03/mbl-qc022621.php" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Eurekalert:</a> </p><p style="margin-left: 20px;"> "Cuttlefish spend most of their time camouflaging, sitting and waiting, punctuated by brief periods of foraging. They break camouflage when they forage, so they are exposed to every predator in the ocean that wants to eat them. We speculate that delayed gratification may have evolved as a byproduct of this, so the cuttlefish can optimize foraging by waiting to choose better quality food."</p><p>Given the unique evolutionary tree of the cuttlefish, its cognitive abilities are an example of convergent evolution, in which two unrelated animals, in this case primates and cuttlefish, evolve the same trait to solve similar problems. These findings could help shed light on the evolution of the cuttlefish and its relatives. </p><p> It should be noted that this study isn't definitive; at the moment, we can't make a useful comparison between the overall intelligence of the cuttlefish and the other animals that can or cannot pass some variation of the marshmallow test.</p><p>Despite this, the results are quite exciting and will likely influence future research into animal intelligence. If the common cuttlefish can pass the marshmallow test, what else can?</p>