How the Recession Has Changed Architecture

Question: What have been some of the main effects of the recession on architecture?

Paul Goldberger:\r\n Well I think the recession is doing two things.  First, it cuts the \r\nvolume of building hugely. You know, the first thing you give up in bad \r\ntimes is building a new building.  I mean, you've got to eat, you’ve got\r\n to do certain other essential things, but building a building for most \r\npeople, for most businesses, most institutions, is an optional thing.  \r\nAnd so when times are tough, you give it up.  It's both optional and \r\nunbelievably expensive.  So therefore, it’s the first thing to go.  \r\nThat’s the bad effect, obviously, of the recession. 

The good \r\neffect, though, is that it can kind of can cleanse a lot of the crap out\r\n of the system.  I mean, we’ve just come through a period of enormous \r\nand, in some ways excessive, prosperity.  A lot of what we’ve built has \r\nbeen excessive and more than a little vulgar.  So if the recession puts \r\nan end to the McMansion, it will have been a social good in some way \r\nactually.  That’s not to—I don’t mean to be flippant about it, obviously\r\n there is more social ill to a recession than social good, but somewhere\r\n within all the awful stuff, there’ll be a modest silver lining and that\r\n might be that we will begin to understand that, you know, an \r\nupper-middle class prosperous family of four does not require 15,000 \r\nsquare feet of living space as a bare minimum, which is the way a lot of\r\n the country's been operating in the age of the McMansion.
 
\r\nQuestion:
Has the recession affected certain types of architecture disproportionately?
\r\n

Paul Goldberger: The recession’s affected architecture at\r\n all levels, I think, because there’s not much money to build.  \r\nRemember, commercial building, nobody builds with their own money.  It’s\r\n all money that gets lent by financial institutions.  And they’re not \r\ndoing it right now, in this climate.  So buildings at all levels have \r\nbeen affected.  The government is not building much, commercial \r\ndevelopers are not building much.  About the only amount of building you\r\n do see is some institutional building; academic institutions, cultural \r\ninstitutions, perhaps that had been planning projects for a long time, \r\nhave raised a lot of the money they need through private philanthropy \r\nand are also figuring that, with construction way down this is actually a\r\n good time because they can build it at a cheaper price then they might \r\nif things come back in a couple of years. So they’re going ahead with a \r\ncertain number of projects, but an awful lot of stuff is not \r\nhappening—in that category as well as other categories.  So, it’s way \r\ndown at all levels. 

We’re coming out of this period when \r\narchitecture’s been incredibly ambitious and sometimes too ambitious \r\neven.  Although far be it from me as an architecture critic to say \r\nthere’s such a thing as architecture being too ambitious, but in fact, \r\nsometimes it has been.  It’s tried to hard; it’s sort of acted as if it \r\nwas going to solve all the world’s ills by a bunch of fancy buildings. 

In\r\n any case, I think we are pulling back on a lot of that stuff and there,\r\n there is both a good and a bad side also.  The good side is sometimes \r\nthings are being done just in a more simple, clear, basic way without a \r\nlot of unnecessary frills and fuss.  You know, it kind of... maybe we’ll\r\n get back to a respect for a kind of modernist purity sometimes.  And \r\nthat's all to the good. 

On the other hand, if things are just \r\ndone more cheaply with crappy, junky materials, that’s not to the good. \r\n And I think we’re seeing some of both of those things right now.

Recorded on June 22, 2010
Interviewed by David Hirschman

The economic downturn has drastically cut the volume of new buildings. But the pause may "cleanse a lot of the crap out of the system."

Are we really addicted to technology?

Fear that new technologies are addictive isn't a modern phenomenon.

Credit: Rodion Kutsaev via Unsplash
Technology & Innovation

This article was originally published on our sister site, Freethink, which has partnered with the Build for Tomorrow podcast to go inside new episodes each month. Subscribe here to learn more about the crazy, curious things from history that shaped us, and how we can shape the future.

In many ways, technology has made our lives better. Through smartphones, apps, and social media platforms we can now work more efficiently and connect in ways that would have been unimaginable just decades ago.

But as we've grown to rely on technology for a lot of our professional and personal needs, most of us are asking tough questions about the role technology plays in our own lives. Are we becoming too dependent on technology to the point that it's actually harming us?

In the latest episode of Build for Tomorrow, host and Entrepreneur Editor-in-Chief Jason Feifer takes on the thorny question: is technology addictive?

Popularizing medical language

What makes something addictive rather than just engaging? It's a meaningful distinction because if technology is addictive, the next question could be: are the creators of popular digital technologies, like smartphones and social media apps, intentionally creating things that are addictive? If so, should they be held responsible?

To answer those questions, we've first got to agree on a definition of "addiction." As it turns out, that's not quite as easy as it sounds.

If we don't have a good definition of what we're talking about, then we can't properly help people.

LIAM SATCHELL UNIVERSITY OF WINCHESTER

"Over the past few decades, a lot of effort has gone into destigmatizing conversations about mental health, which of course is a very good thing," Feifer explains. It also means that medical language has entered into our vernacular —we're now more comfortable using clinical words outside of a specific diagnosis.

"We've all got that one friend who says, 'Oh, I'm a little bit OCD' or that friend who says, 'Oh, this is my big PTSD moment,'" Liam Satchell, a lecturer in psychology at the University of Winchester and guest on the podcast, says. He's concerned about how the word "addiction" gets tossed around by people with no background in mental health. An increased concern surrounding "tech addiction" isn't actually being driven by concern among psychiatric professionals, he says.

"These sorts of concerns about things like internet use or social media use haven't come from the psychiatric community as much," Satchell says. "They've come from people who are interested in technology first."

The casual use of medical language can lead to confusion about what is actually a mental health concern. We need a reliable standard for recognizing, discussing, and ultimately treating psychological conditions.

"If we don't have a good definition of what we're talking about, then we can't properly help people," Satchell says. That's why, according to Satchell, the psychiatric definition of addiction being based around experiencing distress or significant family, social, or occupational disruption needs to be included in any definition of addiction we may use.

Too much reading causes... heat rashes?

But as Feifer points out in his podcast, both popularizing medical language and the fear that new technologies are addictive aren't totally modern phenomena.

Take, for instance, the concept of "reading mania."

In the 18th Century, an author named J. G. Heinzmann claimed that people who read too many novels could experience something called "reading mania." This condition, Heinzmann explained, could cause many symptoms, including: "weakening of the eyes, heat rashes, gout, arthritis, hemorrhoids, asthma, apoplexy, pulmonary disease, indigestion, blocking of the bowels, nervous disorder, migraines, epilepsy, hypochondria, and melancholy."

"That is all very specific! But really, even the term 'reading mania' is medical," Feifer says.

"Manic episodes are not a joke, folks. But this didn't stop people a century later from applying the same term to wristwatches."

Indeed, an 1889 piece in the Newcastle Weekly Courant declared: "The watch mania, as it is called, is certainly excessive; indeed it becomes rabid."

Similar concerns have echoed throughout history about the radio, telephone, TV, and video games.

"It may sound comical in our modern context, but back then, when those new technologies were the latest distraction, they were probably really engaging. People spent too much time doing them," Feifer says. "And what can we say about that now, having seen it play out over and over and over again? We can say it's common. It's a common behavior. Doesn't mean it's the healthiest one. It's just not a medical problem."

Few today would argue that novels are in-and-of-themselves addictive — regardless of how voraciously you may have consumed your last favorite novel. So, what happened? Were these things ever addictive — and if not, what was happening in these moments of concern?

People are complicated, our relationship with new technology is complicated, and addiction is complicated — and our efforts to simplify very complex things, and make generalizations across broad portions of the population, can lead to real harm.

JASON FEIFER HOST OF BUILD FOR TOMORROW

There's a risk of pathologizing normal behavior, says Joel Billieux, professor of clinical psychology and psychological assessment at the University of Lausanne in Switzerland, and guest on the podcast. He's on a mission to understand how we can suss out what is truly addictive behavior versus what is normal behavior that we're calling addictive.

For Billieux and other professionals, this isn't just a rhetorical game. He uses the example of gaming addiction, which has come under increased scrutiny over the past half-decade. The language used around the subject of gaming addiction will determine how behaviors of potential patients are analyzed — and ultimately what treatment is recommended.

"For a lot of people you can realize that the gaming is actually a coping (mechanism for) social anxiety or trauma or depression," says Billieux.

"Those cases, of course, you will not necessarily target gaming per se. You will target what caused depression. And then as a result, If you succeed, gaming will diminish."

In some instances, a person might legitimately be addicted to gaming or technology, and require the corresponding treatment — but that treatment might be the wrong answer for another person.

"None of this is to discount that for some people, technology is a factor in a mental health problem," says Feifer.

"I am also not discounting that individual people can use technology such as smartphones or social media to a degree where it has a genuine negative impact on their lives. But the point here to understand is that people are complicated, our relationship with new technology is complicated, and addiction is complicated — and our efforts to simplify very complex things, and make generalizations across broad portions of the population, can lead to real harm."

Behavioral addiction is a notoriously complex thing for professionals to diagnose — even more so since the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the book professionals use to classify mental disorders, introduced a new idea about addiction in 2013.

"The DSM-5 grouped substance addiction with gambling addiction — this is the first time that substance addiction was directly categorized with any kind of behavioral addiction," Feifer says.

"And then, the DSM-5 went a tiny bit further — and proposed that other potentially addictive behaviors require further study."

This might not sound like that big of a deal to laypeople, but its effect was massive in medicine.

"Researchers started launching studies — not to see if a behavior like social media use can be addictive, but rather, to start with the assumption that social media use is addictive, and then to see how many people have the addiction," says Feifer.

Learned helplessness

The assumption that a lot of us are addicted to technology may itself be harming us by undermining our autonomy and belief that we have agency to create change in our own lives. That's what Nir Eyal, author of the books Hooked and Indistractable, calls 'learned helplessness.'

"The price of living in a world with so many good things in it is that sometimes we have to learn these new skills, these new behaviors to moderate our use," Eyal says. "One surefire way to not do anything is to believe you are powerless. That's what learned helplessness is all about."

So if it's not an addiction that most of us are experiencing when we check our phones 90 times a day or are wondering about what our followers are saying on Twitter — then what is it?

"A choice, a willful choice, and perhaps some people would not agree or would criticize your choices. But I think we cannot consider that as something that is pathological in the clinical sense," says Billieux.

Of course, for some people technology can be addictive.

"If something is genuinely interfering with your social or occupational life, and you have no ability to control it, then please seek help," says Feifer.

But for the vast majority of people, thinking about our use of technology as a choice — albeit not always a healthy one — can be the first step to overcoming unwanted habits.

For more, be sure to check out the Build for Tomorrow episode here.

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Credit: World Values Survey, public domain.
Strange Maps
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Michael C. Crair et al, Science, 2021.
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