How fast is Earth moving through space? That depends.
We are hurtling through space. But where are we going?
Dr. Michelle Thaller is an astronomer who studies binary stars and the life cycles of stars. She is Assistant Director of Science Communication at NASA. She went to college at Harvard University, completed a post-doctoral research fellowship at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, Calif. then started working for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Spitzer Space Telescope. After a hugely successful mission, she moved on to NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), in the Washington D.C. area. In her off-hours often puts on about 30lbs of Elizabethan garb and performs intricate Renaissance dances. For more information, visit NASA.
MICHELLE THALLER: Eugene, you've asked one of my favorite questions and a surprisingly deep one. The essence of it is: How fast are we really moving? We are a solar system; we are planets going around the Sun. But the Sun has its own motion around the galaxy, the Milky Way. And there are larger motions still because the Milky Way galaxy is also moving through space. So I'm going to try to break this down because there are a number of different ways to think about motion because when you get to these scales, one of the most important questions you have to ask is: Motion compared to what? And I'll explain that as I go along.
So one of the most easy to understand motions, but a kind of mind-blowing one is that the Sun is orbiting around the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Now, the Milky Way galaxy is a huge collection of about half a trillion stars, and it's about 100,000 light years across end-to-end. Now, we actually orbit around the center of the galaxy -- the center of the galaxy is about 30,000 light years away from us -- and we orbit around about once every 230 million years. OK, that sounds like a long time. So 230 million years to make one orbit around the galaxy. So how fast are we going? It turns out that the Sun, and us with it, it's going at about 560,000 miles an hour. That's over half a million miles an hour just around the center of our galaxy. So right now, you are moving at over half a million miles an hour around the center of the galaxy. And if you want to think about it in kind of a dramatic way, the center of the galaxy has a massive black hole at the middle, and it's about 4 million times the mass of the Sun. So right now, you are orbiting a massive black hole at half a million miles an hour. That's kind of fun.
But there are larger velocities as well. And here's where things start to get a little bit complicated because the universe is expanding. And what that really means is that space itself is expanding. It's not really correct to say the galaxies are flying through the universe with the expansion of the universe. That's actually not how it works at all. The galaxies in that sense are standing still, but the space in between them is getting bigger. It's a very strange thing to think about, but the expansion of the universe is not galaxies moving through empty space. And one of the reasons that this is important is because the farther away you look into space, the more expanding space you look through. And it's not that galaxies very far away are actually moving through space very, very fast, but they appear that way to us. There's something called the Hubble Constant, and what that means is how fast the universe is expanding for every amount of space that you look through. The Hubble constant right now is about 75 kilometers per second per megaparsec, and a megaparsec is about 3 million light years. So that means that every 3 million light years you go out, things are receding from you at an additional 75 kilometers per second. So when you're 3 million light years away, a galaxy would naturally recede away from you at 75 kilometers per second. Now double that. Say that you're now 6 million light years away, double 75: 150 kilometers per second. So for every 3 million light years you go out, you put an additional 75 kilometers per second onto the speed.
Now, that means the galaxies nearer to us are not moving very quickly at all in the natural expansion of the universe. But if you look at something billions of light years away, you're looking through that much expanding space, and it can be receding away from us, appearing to recede away from us, at a very fast velocity indeed. In fact, when you actually look at the very, very edges of the universe, things are receding away from us close to the speed of light. So that's not anything moving at the speed of light. That's just the fact that you're looking through that much expanding space that it appears to be going that fast away from you, and this is called the Hubble Law.
It took a long time for people to realize that there might be other motions besides just this expansion of the universe. And we have to tease them out because galaxies, as big as they are and as fast as they're moving, the distances they're moving across are so vast it's very difficult to detect. Over time we realized that yes indeed there were other motions besides this, what we call Hubble flow, this expansion of the universe. So we began to realize that the Milky Way galaxy was part of larger clusters of galaxies. And in some cases, clusters of galaxies were bound together by gravity, sort of orbiting around big groups of galaxies. And in other cases, these concentrations of galaxies are probably going to disperse over time as the universe expands.
So starting from relatively close to us, the closest large galaxy to us is Andromeda. And Andromeda is so big and so close that in fact, we are falling towards each other faster than the universe expanding us away. Right now the Andromeda galaxy is coming at us at a speed of about 300,000 miles an hour. And that means that's going to collide with us in a couple billion years so I wouldn't worry about that, that's not a problem for us at all. And in fact, we think the Milky Way has collided with other galaxies in the past as well. But the reason Andromeda is coming toward us is the force of gravity is accelerating us together faster than the expansion is taking it away. Other galaxies even closer to us are orbiting the Milky Way, like the Magellanic Clouds.
So now, let's go out a little bit further and think about how the Milky Way is moving through space compared to larger things. Well, the largest motion we know of right now is that we are falling in towards something called the Great Attractor. And this is a concentration of mass, a giant cluster of galaxies. And right now, we're moving at a little over one and a half million miles an hour towards that part of the sky. For a long time, we really didn't know what was there. We called it the Great Attractor because it seemed kind of mysterious. But now, we realize that it's actually the center of gravity of a huge cluster of galaxies, something called a super cluster. And this cluster probably contains over 100,000 galaxies, and it's probably on the order of about half a billion light years across. And this has been discovered only in the last few years, and it's been called the Laniakea Supercluster. Laniakea is the Hawaiian language word for the highest heaven. And this is the largest group of galaxies that we think that we are actually gravitationally associated with. We are actually falling in towards the center of this giant collection of galaxies.
So where's the Sun going? How are we moving? It depends on with respect to what. We're moving around the galaxy at half a million miles an hour. We're falling into the center of a supercluster of galaxies at one and a half million miles an hour. And all of that is superimposed on top of the expansion of the universe, which isn't really a speed, it's just that you have to look through a lot of expanding space. So there's no one answer as to how fast you're moving right now. And I think that's one of the most wonderful things is how complex these simple answers can get.
- How fast are you, planet Earth, our solar system, and the galaxy moving right now? There's no one answer to that question because we're going in several directions and multiple speeds all at the same time. How is that possible?
- Within the Milky Way galaxy, our solar system is orbiting around a massive black hole at the center of galaxy at half a million miles an hour. Separately, the Milky Way galaxy is in the Virgo Supercluster, which is falling into the Great Attractor, a huge group of galaxies called the Laniakea Supercluster, at one and a half million miles an hour.
- And all of that is superimposed on top of the natural expansion of the universe, which isn't really a speed, but is happening at 75 kilometers per second per megaparsec.
Young people could even end up less anxiety-ridden, thanks to newfound confidence
- The coronavirus pandemic may have a silver lining: It shows how insanely resourceful kids really are.
- Let Grow, a non-profit promoting independence as a critical part of childhood, ran an "Independence Challenge" essay contest for kids. Here are a few of the amazing essays that came in.
- Download Let Grow's free Independence Kit with ideas for kids.
Technique may enable speedy, on-demand design of softer, safer neural devices.
The brain is one of our most vulnerable organs, as soft as the softest tofu. Brain implants, on the other hand, are typically made from metal and other rigid materials that over time can cause inflammation and the buildup of scar tissue.
New research establishes an unexpected connection.
- A study provides further confirmation that a prolonged lack of sleep can result in early mortality.
- Surprisingly, the direct cause seems to be a buildup of Reactive Oxygen Species in the gut produced by sleeplessness.
- When the buildup is neutralized, a normal lifespan is restored.
We don't have to tell you what it feels like when you don't get enough sleep. A night or two of that can be miserable; long-term sleeplessness is out-and-out debilitating. Though we know from personal experience that we need sleep — our cognitive, metabolic, cardiovascular, and immune functioning depend on it — a lack of it does more than just make you feel like you want to die. It can actually kill you, according to study of rats published in 1989. But why?
A new study answers that question, and in an unexpected way. It appears that the sleeplessness/death connection has nothing to do with the brain or nervous system as many have assumed — it happens in your gut. Equally amazing, the study's authors were able to reverse the ill effects with antioxidants.
The study, from researchers at Harvard Medical School (HMS), is published in the journal Cell.
An unexpected culprit
The new research examines the mechanisms at play in sleep-deprived fruit flies and in mice — long-term sleep-deprivation experiments with humans are considered ethically iffy.
What the scientists found is that death from sleep deprivation is always preceded by a buildup of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the gut. These are not, as their name implies, living organisms. ROS are reactive molecules that are part of the immune system's response to invading microbes, and recent research suggests they're paradoxically key players in normal cell signal transduction and cell cycling as well. However, having an excess of ROS leads to oxidative stress, which is linked to "macromolecular damage and is implicated in various disease states such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, neurodegeneration, and aging." To prevent this, cellular defenses typically maintain a balance between ROS production and removal.
"We took an unbiased approach and searched throughout the body for indicators of damage from sleep deprivation," says senior study author Dragana Rogulja, admitting, "We were surprised to find it was the gut that plays a key role in causing death." The accumulation occurred in both sleep-deprived fruit flies and mice.
"Even more surprising," Rogulja recalls, "we found that premature death could be prevented. Each morning, we would all gather around to look at the flies, with disbelief to be honest. What we saw is that every time we could neutralize ROS in the gut, we could rescue the flies." Fruit flies given any of 11 antioxidant compounds — including melatonin, lipoic acid and NAD — that neutralize ROS buildups remained active and lived a normal length of time in spite of sleep deprivation. (The researchers note that these antioxidants did not extend the lifespans of non-sleep deprived control subjects.)
Image source: Tomasz Klejdysz/Shutterstock/Big Think
The study's tests were managed by co-first authors Alexandra Vaccaro and Yosef Kaplan Dor, both research fellows at HMS.
You may wonder how you compel a fruit fly to sleep, or for that matter, how you keep one awake. The researchers ascertained that fruit flies doze off in response to being shaken, and thus were the control subjects induced to snooze in their individual, warmed tubes. Each subject occupied its own 29 °C (84F) tube.
For their sleepless cohort, fruit flies were genetically manipulated to express a heat-sensitive protein in specific neurons. These neurons are known to suppress sleep, and did so — the fruit flies' activity levels, or lack thereof, were tracked using infrared beams.
Starting at Day 10 of sleep deprivation, fruit flies began dying, with all of them dead by Day 20. Control flies lived up to 40 days.
The scientists sought out markers that would indicate cell damage in their sleepless subjects. They saw no difference in brain tissue and elsewhere between the well-rested and sleep-deprived fruit flies, with the exception of one fruit fly.
However, in the guts of sleep-deprived fruit flies was a massive accumulation of ROS, which peaked around Day 10. Says Vaccaro, "We found that sleep-deprived flies were dying at the same pace, every time, and when we looked at markers of cell damage and death, the one tissue that really stood out was the gut." She adds, "I remember when we did the first experiment, you could immediately tell under the microscope that there was a striking difference. That almost never happens in lab research."
The experiments were repeated with mice who were gently kept awake for five days. Again, ROS built up over time in their small and large intestines but nowhere else.
As noted above, the administering of antioxidants alleviated the effect of the ROS buildup. In addition, flies that were modified to overproduce gut antioxidant enzymes were found to be immune to the damaging effects of sleep deprivation.
The research leaves some important questions unanswered. Says Kaplan Dor, "We still don't know why sleep loss causes ROS accumulation in the gut, and why this is lethal." He hypothesizes, "Sleep deprivation could directly affect the gut, but the trigger may also originate in the brain. Similarly, death could be due to damage in the gut or because high levels of ROS have systemic effects, or some combination of these."
The HMS researchers are now investigating the chemical pathways by which sleep-deprivation triggers the ROS buildup, and the means by which the ROS wreak cell havoc.
"We need to understand the biology of how sleep deprivation damages the body so that we can find ways to prevent this harm," says Rogulja.
Referring to the value of this study to humans, she notes,"So many of us are chronically sleep deprived. Even if we know staying up late every night is bad, we still do it. We believe we've identified a central issue that, when eliminated, allows for survival without sleep, at least in fruit flies."
Philosophers like to present their works as if everything before it was wrong. Sometimes, they even say they have ended the need for more philosophy. So, what happens when somebody realizes they were mistaken?
Sometimes philosophers are wrong and admitting that you could be wrong is a big part of being a real philosopher. While most philosophers make minor adjustments to their arguments to correct for mistakes, others make large shifts in their thinking. Here, we have four philosophers who went back on what they said earlier in often radical ways.
We must rethink the "chemical imbalance" theory of mental health.
- A new review found that withdrawal symptoms from antidepressants and antipsychotics can last for over a year.
- Side effects from SSRIs, SNRIs, and antipsychotics last longer than benzodiazepines like Valium or Prozac.
- The global antidepressant market is expected to reach $28.6 billion this year.