How fast is Earth moving through space? That depends.
We are hurtling through space. But where are we going?
Dr. Michelle Thaller is an astronomer who studies binary stars and the life cycles of stars. She is Assistant Director of Science Communication at NASA. She went to college at Harvard University, completed a post-doctoral research fellowship at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, Calif. then started working for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Spitzer Space Telescope. After a hugely successful mission, she moved on to NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), in the Washington D.C. area. In her off-hours often puts on about 30lbs of Elizabethan garb and performs intricate Renaissance dances. For more information, visit NASA.
MICHELLE THALLER: Eugene, you've asked one of my favorite questions and a surprisingly deep one. The essence of it is: How fast are we really moving? We are a solar system; we are planets going around the Sun. But the Sun has its own motion around the galaxy, the Milky Way. And there are larger motions still because the Milky Way galaxy is also moving through space. So I'm going to try to break this down because there are a number of different ways to think about motion because when you get to these scales, one of the most important questions you have to ask is: Motion compared to what? And I'll explain that as I go along.
So one of the most easy to understand motions, but a kind of mind-blowing one is that the Sun is orbiting around the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Now, the Milky Way galaxy is a huge collection of about half a trillion stars, and it's about 100,000 light years across end-to-end. Now, we actually orbit around the center of the galaxy -- the center of the galaxy is about 30,000 light years away from us -- and we orbit around about once every 230 million years. OK, that sounds like a long time. So 230 million years to make one orbit around the galaxy. So how fast are we going? It turns out that the Sun, and us with it, it's going at about 560,000 miles an hour. That's over half a million miles an hour just around the center of our galaxy. So right now, you are moving at over half a million miles an hour around the center of the galaxy. And if you want to think about it in kind of a dramatic way, the center of the galaxy has a massive black hole at the middle, and it's about 4 million times the mass of the Sun. So right now, you are orbiting a massive black hole at half a million miles an hour. That's kind of fun.
But there are larger velocities as well. And here's where things start to get a little bit complicated because the universe is expanding. And what that really means is that space itself is expanding. It's not really correct to say the galaxies are flying through the universe with the expansion of the universe. That's actually not how it works at all. The galaxies in that sense are standing still, but the space in between them is getting bigger. It's a very strange thing to think about, but the expansion of the universe is not galaxies moving through empty space. And one of the reasons that this is important is because the farther away you look into space, the more expanding space you look through. And it's not that galaxies very far away are actually moving through space very, very fast, but they appear that way to us. There's something called the Hubble Constant, and what that means is how fast the universe is expanding for every amount of space that you look through. The Hubble constant right now is about 75 kilometers per second per megaparsec, and a megaparsec is about 3 million light years. So that means that every 3 million light years you go out, things are receding from you at an additional 75 kilometers per second. So when you're 3 million light years away, a galaxy would naturally recede away from you at 75 kilometers per second. Now double that. Say that you're now 6 million light years away, double 75: 150 kilometers per second. So for every 3 million light years you go out, you put an additional 75 kilometers per second onto the speed.
Now, that means the galaxies nearer to us are not moving very quickly at all in the natural expansion of the universe. But if you look at something billions of light years away, you're looking through that much expanding space, and it can be receding away from us, appearing to recede away from us, at a very fast velocity indeed. In fact, when you actually look at the very, very edges of the universe, things are receding away from us close to the speed of light. So that's not anything moving at the speed of light. That's just the fact that you're looking through that much expanding space that it appears to be going that fast away from you, and this is called the Hubble Law.
It took a long time for people to realize that there might be other motions besides just this expansion of the universe. And we have to tease them out because galaxies, as big as they are and as fast as they're moving, the distances they're moving across are so vast it's very difficult to detect. Over time we realized that yes indeed there were other motions besides this, what we call Hubble flow, this expansion of the universe. So we began to realize that the Milky Way galaxy was part of larger clusters of galaxies. And in some cases, clusters of galaxies were bound together by gravity, sort of orbiting around big groups of galaxies. And in other cases, these concentrations of galaxies are probably going to disperse over time as the universe expands.
So starting from relatively close to us, the closest large galaxy to us is Andromeda. And Andromeda is so big and so close that in fact, we are falling towards each other faster than the universe expanding us away. Right now the Andromeda galaxy is coming at us at a speed of about 300,000 miles an hour. And that means that's going to collide with us in a couple billion years so I wouldn't worry about that, that's not a problem for us at all. And in fact, we think the Milky Way has collided with other galaxies in the past as well. But the reason Andromeda is coming toward us is the force of gravity is accelerating us together faster than the expansion is taking it away. Other galaxies even closer to us are orbiting the Milky Way, like the Magellanic Clouds.
So now, let's go out a little bit further and think about how the Milky Way is moving through space compared to larger things. Well, the largest motion we know of right now is that we are falling in towards something called the Great Attractor. And this is a concentration of mass, a giant cluster of galaxies. And right now, we're moving at a little over one and a half million miles an hour towards that part of the sky. For a long time, we really didn't know what was there. We called it the Great Attractor because it seemed kind of mysterious. But now, we realize that it's actually the center of gravity of a huge cluster of galaxies, something called a super cluster. And this cluster probably contains over 100,000 galaxies, and it's probably on the order of about half a billion light years across. And this has been discovered only in the last few years, and it's been called the Laniakea Supercluster. Laniakea is the Hawaiian language word for the highest heaven. And this is the largest group of galaxies that we think that we are actually gravitationally associated with. We are actually falling in towards the center of this giant collection of galaxies.
So where's the Sun going? How are we moving? It depends on with respect to what. We're moving around the galaxy at half a million miles an hour. We're falling into the center of a supercluster of galaxies at one and a half million miles an hour. And all of that is superimposed on top of the expansion of the universe, which isn't really a speed, it's just that you have to look through a lot of expanding space. So there's no one answer as to how fast you're moving right now. And I think that's one of the most wonderful things is how complex these simple answers can get.
- How fast are you, planet Earth, our solar system, and the galaxy moving right now? There's no one answer to that question because we're going in several directions and multiple speeds all at the same time. How is that possible?
- Within the Milky Way galaxy, our solar system is orbiting around a massive black hole at the center of galaxy at half a million miles an hour. Separately, the Milky Way galaxy is in the Virgo Supercluster, which is falling into the Great Attractor, a huge group of galaxies called the Laniakea Supercluster, at one and a half million miles an hour.
- And all of that is superimposed on top of the natural expansion of the universe, which isn't really a speed, but is happening at 75 kilometers per second per megaparsec.
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The pizza giant Domino's partners with a Silicon Valley startup to start delivering pizza by robots.
- Domino's partnered with the Silicon Valley startup Nuro to have robot cars deliver pizza.
- The trial run will begin in Houston later this year.
- The robots will be half a regular car and will need to be unlocked by a PIN code.
Would you have to tip robots? You might be answering that question sooner than you think as Domino's is about to start using robots for delivering pizza. Later this year a fleet of self-driving robotic vehicles will be spreading the joy of pizza throughout the Houston area for the famous pizza manufacturer, using delivery cars made by the Silicon Valley startup Nuro.
The startup, founded by Google veterans, raised $940 million in February and has already been delivering groceries for Kroger around Houston. Partnering with the pizza juggernaut Domino's, which delivers close to 3 million pizzas a day, is another logical step for the expanding drone car business.
Kevin Vasconi of Domino's explained in a press release that they see these specially-designed robots as "a valuable partner in our autonomous vehicle journey," adding "The opportunity to bring our customers the choice of an unmanned delivery experience, and our operators an additional delivery solution during a busy store rush, is an important part of our autonomous vehicle testing."
How will they work exactly? Nuro explained in its own press release that this "opportunity to use Nuro's autonomous delivery" will be available for some of the customers who order online. Once they opt in, they'll be able to track the car via an app. When the vehicle gets to them, the customers will use a special PIN code to unlock the pizza compartment.
Nuro and its competitors Udelv and Robomart have been focusing specifically on developing such "last-mile product delivery" machines, reports Arstechnica. Their specially-made R1 vehicle is about half the size of a regular passenger car and doesn't offer any room for a driver. This makes it safer and lighter too, with less potential to cause harm in case of an accident. It also sticks to a fairly low speed of under 25 miles an hour and slams on the breaks at the first sign of trouble.
What also helps such robot cars is "geofencing" technology which confines them to a limited area surrounding the store.
For now, the cars are still tracked around the neighborhoods by human-driven vehicles, with monitors to make sure nothing goes haywire. But these "chase cars" should be phased out eventually, an important milestone in the evolution of your robot pizza drivers.
Check out how Nuro's vehicles work:
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