Freedom, Truth and Democracy

Question: What’s the connection between freedom, truth and democracy?

Rob Riemen: If freedom is only reduced to, “I must be able to wear my guns,” and dah, dah, dah, then you don’t understand what freedom is. Then you . . . then you never read Spinoza and some other great minds who explained that the essence of freedom is that if we want to become truly free human beings, that means that we can get rid of stupidity, prejudices, hatred, also of fear. And that we can acquire a certain truth. And that exactly in this freedom we will find the secret of our own human dignity. Again, if we do not know what the true meaning of the word “freedom” is; if we do not know what the true meaning of the word “democracy” is, you are lost. If I may go back to my great fellow Dutchman, Spinoza, who lived in the 16th century; who escaped from a kind of fundamentalist background because “he wanted to live in truth”. And as I said, he wanted to find out . . . He realized there was so much . . . He grew up in a business family, and he realized so many things are absolutely trivial; not really worthwhile. So what to do with how to find the real things. So he started to think about it and he discovered that, yes, there must be something like truth and wisdom, and he wanted to devote his life to it. And he also realized that with this quintessential connection between freedom, truth, human dignity – which you can define as, a friend of mine once said, our homecoming to our better self – we are . . . We all have a double major. We are human beings, so yes we have these animal-like instincts, like Freud wrote about with such aggression that instinct. But also we can know about what truth is, and what beauty is, and what peace is, and what harmony is, and so on and so forth. So if we want to acquire those values and become an incarnation or an embodiment of what we should be, that’s the true human dignity. That is what George Steiner said, “Our home coming to our better self.” And then Spinoza realizes that you can only do this in the setting of democracy. That is to say we need political freedom. We need a situation where there is a plurality, because even if there is an absolute truth, nobody can claim it. I mean that’s the whole thing with fundamentalists. Every fundamentalist – whether it’s a secular, or religious Islamic, Jewish, Christian, whatever – claims for himself and the rest of the world, “I know what truth is.” The interesting thing is that something can only be absolute when it’s transcendental; when it’s beyond time. Being that the case, no human being can claim, “This is . . .” You know, “I am in the possession of it.” Spinoza realized this, so Spinoza realized okay we cannot . . . We should never give up the idea that there is truth, and that there is an absolute truth. But there are many ways to approach it, which means there has to be a plurality; and this can only be the case if we live in a true democracy. Now, but it’s true democracy – and this is already a thing the Greeks discovered – you can only have it when you’re dealing with educated, more or less rational thinking, independent human beings, which is a whole series of words for one simple thing – true, liberal education. Without true liberal education, you can never, ever have a true democracy. Because without it, this is Nietzsche, Dostoyevsky, _____ you will get the mass democracy. And the mass democracy is a society deprived of spiritual failures. And it’s open space for Mr. Limbaugh . . . or Rush Limbaugh, or all the Democrats and populists. This Mr. Dobb at CNN, I mean dangerous, dangerous people. We have seen it in Europe all too well. Mr. Goebbels knows everything about propaganda, and it worked. Propaganda always works. In our society, we have deprived people from the rational factor to be educated, to think for themselves, and . . . and . . . and to be related to certain spiritual failures. So a mass society, we know from European history, is to first step to a totalitarian society. And again, Plato already knew that the democracy has a nice capacity to commit suicide. In Europe it happened twice, and there is no guarantee whatsoever that it will not happen a third time. There’s also no guarantee whatsoever that it cannot happen in America. Of course it can happen here as well.

 

Recorded on: 10/3/07

Rob Riemen emphasizes the roots of democracy as first articulated by the Greeks.

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The surprise reason sleep-deprivation kills lies in the gut

New research establishes an unexpected connection.

Image source: Vaccaro et al, 2020/Harvard Medical School
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We don't have to tell you what it feels like when you don't get enough sleep. A night or two of that can be miserable; long-term sleeplessness is out-and-out debilitating. Though we know from personal experience that we need sleep — our cognitive, metabolic, cardiovascular, and immune functioning depend on it — a lack of it does more than just make you feel like you want to die. It can actually kill you, according to study of rats published in 1989. But why?

A new study answers that question, and in an unexpected way. It appears that the sleeplessness/death connection has nothing to do with the brain or nervous system as many have assumed — it happens in your gut. Equally amazing, the study's authors were able to reverse the ill effects with antioxidants.

The study, from researchers at Harvard Medical School (HMS), is published in the journal Cell.

An unexpected culprit

The new research examines the mechanisms at play in sleep-deprived fruit flies and in mice — long-term sleep-deprivation experiments with humans are considered ethically iffy.

What the scientists found is that death from sleep deprivation is always preceded by a buildup of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the gut. These are not, as their name implies, living organisms. ROS are reactive molecules that are part of the immune system's response to invading microbes, and recent research suggests they're paradoxically key players in normal cell signal transduction and cell cycling as well. However, having an excess of ROS leads to oxidative stress, which is linked to "macromolecular damage and is implicated in various disease states such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, neurodegeneration, and aging." To prevent this, cellular defenses typically maintain a balance between ROS production and removal.

"We took an unbiased approach and searched throughout the body for indicators of damage from sleep deprivation," says senior study author Dragana Rogulja, admitting, "We were surprised to find it was the gut that plays a key role in causing death." The accumulation occurred in both sleep-deprived fruit flies and mice.

"Even more surprising," Rogulja recalls, "we found that premature death could be prevented. Each morning, we would all gather around to look at the flies, with disbelief to be honest. What we saw is that every time we could neutralize ROS in the gut, we could rescue the flies." Fruit flies given any of 11 antioxidant compounds — including melatonin, lipoic acid and NAD — that neutralize ROS buildups remained active and lived a normal length of time in spite of sleep deprivation. (The researchers note that these antioxidants did not extend the lifespans of non-sleep deprived control subjects.)

fly with thought bubble that says "What? I'm awake!"

Image source: Tomasz Klejdysz/Shutterstock/Big Think

The experiments

The study's tests were managed by co-first authors Alexandra Vaccaro and Yosef Kaplan Dor, both research fellows at HMS.

You may wonder how you compel a fruit fly to sleep, or for that matter, how you keep one awake. The researchers ascertained that fruit flies doze off in response to being shaken, and thus were the control subjects induced to snooze in their individual, warmed tubes. Each subject occupied its own 29 °C (84F) tube.

For their sleepless cohort, fruit flies were genetically manipulated to express a heat-sensitive protein in specific neurons. These neurons are known to suppress sleep, and did so — the fruit flies' activity levels, or lack thereof, were tracked using infrared beams.

Starting at Day 10 of sleep deprivation, fruit flies began dying, with all of them dead by Day 20. Control flies lived up to 40 days.

The scientists sought out markers that would indicate cell damage in their sleepless subjects. They saw no difference in brain tissue and elsewhere between the well-rested and sleep-deprived fruit flies, with the exception of one fruit fly.

However, in the guts of sleep-deprived fruit flies was a massive accumulation of ROS, which peaked around Day 10. Says Vaccaro, "We found that sleep-deprived flies were dying at the same pace, every time, and when we looked at markers of cell damage and death, the one tissue that really stood out was the gut." She adds, "I remember when we did the first experiment, you could immediately tell under the microscope that there was a striking difference. That almost never happens in lab research."

The experiments were repeated with mice who were gently kept awake for five days. Again, ROS built up over time in their small and large intestines but nowhere else.

As noted above, the administering of antioxidants alleviated the effect of the ROS buildup. In addition, flies that were modified to overproduce gut antioxidant enzymes were found to be immune to the damaging effects of sleep deprivation.

The research leaves some important questions unanswered. Says Kaplan Dor, "We still don't know why sleep loss causes ROS accumulation in the gut, and why this is lethal." He hypothesizes, "Sleep deprivation could directly affect the gut, but the trigger may also originate in the brain. Similarly, death could be due to damage in the gut or because high levels of ROS have systemic effects, or some combination of these."

The HMS researchers are now investigating the chemical pathways by which sleep-deprivation triggers the ROS buildup, and the means by which the ROS wreak cell havoc.

"We need to understand the biology of how sleep deprivation damages the body so that we can find ways to prevent this harm," says Rogulja.

Referring to the value of this study to humans, she notes,"So many of us are chronically sleep deprived. Even if we know staying up late every night is bad, we still do it. We believe we've identified a central issue that, when eliminated, allows for survival without sleep, at least in fruit flies."

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