The Key to Reversing Autism May Be in the Microbiome
Part of the rise in autism is due to better diagnosis, but Dr. Emeran Mayer thinks it's something in our environment, and within us, that has played a role in causing this increase.
Dr Emeran Mayer is a world-renowned gastroenterologist and neuroscientist with 35 years of experience in the study of clinical and neurobiological aspects of how the digestive system and the nervous system interact in health and disease. His current research focus is on the role of the gut microbiota brain interactions in emotion regulation, chronic visceral pain, and in obesity. His research has been continuously supported by the National Institutes of Health.
Dr Mayer is a professor in the Departments of Medicine, Physiology and Psychiatry at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, executive director of the G Oppenheimer Center for Neurobiology of Stress and Resilience, and co-director of the CURE: Digestive Diseases Research Center at UCLA.
Emeran Mayer: Autism is both a devastating problem and it’s still a puzzle largely what causes or what has been causing the dramatic increase in the prevalence of this disease in the last 40 years or so. So it’s almost like an exponential increase. Part of that is really due to better diagnosis and the diagnostic criteria. But a lot of people think that something in our environment has played a role in causing this increase. And it’s worldwide. It’s not just in North America. It’s in Asia, it’s in Europe. So something environmental. The genes, the genetic risk factors for autism have obviously always been there but something else must have triggered it. So some people think it’s something in the diet and that is possible. It could also be something what we do to our gut microbes. So the use of antibiotics, the obsession with keeping things more and more sterile from the day we’re born, you know, throughout our lifetime.
So people have thought about this as potentially a change in microbial composition, diversity inside of us are a cause of this. There’s many observations that link the brain and the gut in autism. Clinically the majority of autistic children have digestive problems – constipation, abdominal pain, discomfort. Part of that is most likely due to the diet, the unique diet that autistic children self-select for. Many things are excluded from the diet that we normally would like fiber, fermented foods. And so it’s very possible that that plays a role. And there are people that have thought about this why do kids select such a diet. It seems to have to do a lot with the texture of foods. So very unique disturbance in the sensitivity for the texture, not so much for the content. So things that are soft are much preferred over crunchy and chewy things. And then, you know, people have started to look at the microbial composition. So they looked at the gut microbes in fecal samples from patients with autism and have found abnormalities.
The problem is most of those studies are small. They’re often not well controlled. We now understand that autism is a spectrum, autism spectrum disorder. And it probably contains several different subsets of patients. So if you just take a small number of patients, measure their gut microbes it’s, you’re likely to pick up variable patterns because it’s not a homogeneous group of patients. And the last thing that’s happened which has really drawn a lot of attention to it has been a study published a couple of years ago by a group at Cal Tech in California which showed that in an animal model of what’s called maternal immune activation – so where the mother undergoes an infection or immune activation during pregnancy. And then the offspring, the mother’s offspring shows altered social behavior. And there’s various tests that have been taken as animal behavior equivalents to human autism. Always, you know, a big chunk from something, from animal behaviors to something as complex as all the disturbances in autism. But that has received a lot of attention because in these animals that have these behaviors they have an altered gut microbial composition, produce different metabolites, particularly one metabolite that’s also been found in human patients. And they have a leaky gut. So they have immune activation in the gut and by treating these animals with – that’s the most intriguing. By treating them with a probiotic which is called B. fragilis, the investigators were able to reverse many of those behavioral changes and the gut abnormalities in these mice.
So this has triggered a tremendous interest now. There’s efforts underway to produce this probiotic and make it acceptable for human use. So it’s not a probiotic that you currently can get in your yogurt or cheese. It has to be approved. It has to be cultured. But clinical trials will happen in the next couple of years that will test this hypothesis. Can you actually by influencing the microbial composition reverse some of the changes either in terms of the gut dysfunction or cognitive and social interaction of these patients. One would assume that in humans the earlier you could start that therapy after delivery – this is clearly a developmental disorder that starts initially almost with imperceptible changes in the newborn and then gradually becomes clinically obvious. The earlier you could start this treatment, the more likely it would be beneficial. So autism in many ways is the prototypic brain-gut microbiome disorder. So this model is almost certainly going to lead to a better understanding and breakthroughs and diagnosis and therapy. But there’s still a ways to go.
So probiotic is a microbe with a demonstrated health benefit. So lots of microbes would qualify for this. We have 100 trillion of these microbes inside of our gut so many of those are potential probiotics that if you isolate them, culture them and then give them to humans – and that’s like with this B. fragilis. It’s produced in the context of infections and abscesses strangely. But it has been shown to have many beneficial effects also stimulating the immune system. That effect on autism appears to be different from the one that has been demonstrated earlier from its anti-inflammatory effect on the gut’s immune system. So it does exist. It just doesn’t exist in a form that is currently commercially available or that would be allowed by the FDA that you could put this into humans. So the trial was left to demonstrate the safety which most likely will be shown. But the FDA is fairly strict. Anytime you use a probiotic even the ones that are in commercially available products if you want to prove that a particular yogurt with its microbes is probiotic is beneficial for a disease condition you need to get FDA approval just like for any other drug which is a complex process, a time consuming process. And it’s kind of slowed the progress in this field of identifying microbes with potential health. So new microbes with potential health benefits.
The genetic risk for autism has always existed, but in the last 40 years the prevalence has risen dramatically – and not in any one location, but across all developed nations. Many researchers are looking to identify the trigger and, as a gastroenterologist and neurologist, Dr. Emeran Mayer is following the trail of evidence that points to the microbial composition of the digestive system and its relationship to the brain. The gut microbes of those with autism differs from people who aren’t on the autism spectrum, but so far many of the studies have not been sufficient to draw solid results. Dr. Mayer runs through one of the more compelling studies and explains how a yet unapproved strain of probiotic may be the answer to the decreasing the incidence of autism in the future. Dr. Emeran Mayer's most recent book is The Mind-Gut Connection: How the Hidden Conversation Within Our Bodies Impacts Our Mood, Our Choices, and Our Overall Health.
Dr Emeran Mayer's most recent book is The Mind-Gut Connection: How the Hidden Conversation Within Our Bodies Impacts Our Mood, Our Choices, and Our Overall Health
"They" has taken on a not-so-new meaning lately. This earned it the scrutiny it needed to win.
- Merriam-Webster has announced "they" as the word of the year.
- The selection was based on a marked increase in traffic to the online dictionary page.
- Runners up included "quid pro quo" and "crawdad."
A review of the global "wall" that divides rich from poor.
- Trump's border wall is only one puzzle piece of a global picture.
- Similar anxieties are raising similar border defenses elsewhere.
- This map shows how, as a result, "the West" is in fact one large gated community.
Facebook's misinformation isn't just a threat to democracy. It's endangering lives.
- Facebook and Instagram users have been inundated with misleading ads about medication that prevents the transmission of HIV (PrEP), such as Truvada.
- Over the years, Facebook's hands-off ad policy has faced scrutiny when it comes to false or ambiguous information in its political ads.
- Unregulated "surveillance capitalism" commodifies people's personal information and makes them vulnerable to sometimes misleading ads.
LGBT groups are saying that Facebook is endangering lives by advertising misleading medical information pertaining to HIV patients.
The tech giant's laissez-faire ad policy has already been accused of threatening democracy by providing a platform for false political ads, and now policy could be fostering a major public-health concern.
LGBT groups take on Facebook’s ad policy
According to LGBT advocates, for the past six months Facebook and Instagram users have been inundated with misleading ads about medication that prevents the transmission of HIV (PrEP), such as Truvada. The ads, which The Washington Post reports appear to have been purchased by personal-injury lawyers, claim that these medications threaten patients with serious side effects. According to LGBT organizations led by GLAAD, the ads have left some patients who are potentially at risk of contracting HIV scared to take preventative drugs, even though health officials and federal regulators say the drugs are safe.
LGBT groups like GLAAD, which regularly advises Facebook on LGBT issues, reached out to the company to have the ads taken down, saying they are false. Yet, the tech titan has refused to remove the content claiming that the ads fall within the parameters of its policy. Facebook spokeswoman Devon Kearns told The Post that the ads had not been rated false by independent fact-checkers, which include the Associated Press. But others are saying that Facebook's controversial approach to ads is creating a public-health crisis.
In an open letter to Facebook sent on Monday, GLAAD joined over 50 well-known LGBTQ groups including the Human Rights Campaign, the American Academy of HIV Medicine and the National Coalition for LGBT Health to publicly condemn the company for putting "real people's lives in imminent danger" by "convincing at-risk individuals to avoid PrEP, invariably leading to avoidable HIV infections."
What Facebook’s policy risks
Of course, this is not the first time Facebook's policy has faced scrutiny when it comes to false or ambiguous information in its ads. Social media has been both a catalyst and conduit for the rapid-fire spread of misinformation to the world wide web. As lawmakers struggle to enforce order to cyberspace and its creations, Facebook has become a symbol of the threat the internet poses to our institutions and to public safety. For example, the company has refused to take down 2020 election ads, largely funded by the Trump campaign, that spew false information. For this reason, Facebook and other social media platforms present a serious risk to a fundamental necessity of American democracy, public access to truth.
But this latest scandal underlines how the misconstrued information that plagues the web can infect other, more intimate aspects of American lives. Facebook's handling of paid-for claims about the potential health risks of taking Truvada and other HIV medications threatens lives.
"Almost immediately we started hearing reports from front-line PrEP prescribers, clinics and public health officials around the country, saying we're beginning to hear from potential clients that they're scared of trying Truvada because they're seeing all these ads on their Facebook and Instagram feeds," said Peter Staley, a long-time AIDS activist who works with the PrEP4All Collaboration, to The Post.
Unregulated Surveillance Capitalism
To be fair, the distinction between true and false information can be muddy territory. Personal injury lawyers who represent HIV patients claim that the numbers show that the potential risks of medications such as Turvada and others that contain the ingredient antiretroviral tenofovir may exist. This is particularly of note when the medication is used as a treatment for those that already have HIV rather than prevention for those that do not. But the life-saving potential of the HIV medications are unequivocally real. The problem, as some LGBT advocates are claiming, is that the ads lacked vital nuance.
It also should be pointed out that Facebook has taken action against anti-vaccine content and other ads that pose threats to users. Still, the company's dubious policies clearly pose a big problem, and it has shown no signs of adjusting. But perhaps the underlying issue is the failure to regulate what social psychologist Shoshana Zuboff calls "surveillance capitalism" by which people's experiences, personal information, and characteristics become commodities. In this case, paid-for personal-injury legal ads that target users with certain, undisclosed characteristics. It's been said that you should be wary of what you get for free, because it means you've become the product. Facebook, after all, is a business with an end goal to maximize profits.
But why does a company have this kind of power over our lives? Americans and their legislators are ensnared in an existential predicament. Figure out how to regulate Facebook and be accused with endangering free speech, or leave the cyber business alone and risk the public's health going up for sale along with its government.