from the world's big
E.O. Wilson on the 'Knockout Gene' that Allows Mankind to Dominate Earth
Famed evolutionary biologist E.O. Wilson argues that humans came to dominate the Earth thanks to a social condition called eusociality.
Edward Osborne Wilson is an American biologist (Myrmecology, a branch of entomology), researcher (sociobiology, biodiversity), theorist (consilience, biophilia), and naturalist (conservationism). Wilson is known for his career as a scientist, his advocacy for environmentalism, and his secular humanist ideas concerned with religious and ethical matters.
A Harvard professor for four decades, he has written twenty books, won two Pulitzer prizes, and discovered hundreds of new species. Considered to be one of the world's greatest living scientists, Dr. Wilson is often called "the father of biodiversity," (a word that he coined). He is the Pellegrino University Research Professor, Emeritus in Entomology for the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University and a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. He is a Humanist Laureate of the International Academy of Humanism.
E.O. Wilson: One of the features of humanity that is diagnostic of humanity, meaning it's one of the identifying features of humanity, although it's not unique to humanity, is what we call eusociality. That’s E-U-sociality. And EU means good or true or whatever; it means the most advanced stage in the evolution of social behavior. And that advanced stage has, and this is a count that I've made back and forth because it's part of my field as far of sociobiology that I focused on being a student of ant behavior, and I have found going through the record of fossil animals, but primarily among animal societies that exist today, some 20 species, no more, or I should say lines of evolution that led to eusociality. What is eusociality? Eusociality is the condition of social behavior in which groups are organized into some caste or individuals that are fully reproductive and others that are a little or very much less reproductive, in the extreme becoming sterile workers. They divide labor, these less reproductive workers, to support the reproductive workers. So that you have a group that is fundamentally organized in that way with non-reproductive workers; think ants, think wasps, think termites, and think then about humans that can perform specialized tasks within the group. And then you have the foundation, the platform so to speak, for building immensely complex societies. It's those societies that are extremely complex that are other than not human, and yet are not intelligent because they don't have the size to have a big enough brain, are the ants. And that's one line of the 20, and termites, that's a second line of the 20, and those two groups alone dominate the insect world just as humans eusocial alone among all big animals, eusocial to a slight degree, but nevertheless a significant one, dominate the planet. And that's really what the significance of eusociality is.
And it's why in an earlier book I used the title The Social Conquest of Earth. So the question, then circling back to what is the meaning of humanity, is in part how did and why did we achieve eusociality alone among the African primates and alone among all the big animals we know about. And then it was never achieved, so far as we know, by any big animals going all the way back to the early mammals of the Cenozoic era 65 million years and almost into the age of dinosaurs. There were dinosaurs that ran around on two legs and had arms and hands that could manipulate things and heads that might have expanded with brain, yet something had happened to them that made higher intelligent Darwinian success. But that never happened. Nothing happened until about 3 or 2 million years ago. Finally an old-world primate line developed the present human condition. And now we come to the question why only 20 times? That's all I can find. And that's my specialty is studying social insects and related creatures that have high levels of social behavior. And why is this? And now I'm going to tell you. And this is a very important part of knowing the meaning of human existence.
Every one of those lines, 20 lines without exception, as far as we can determine, went through a stage of what we call preadaptation, that is they acquired other traits that were not really social, but set the stage to become eusocial. And that trait is the following. In large numbers of species of organisms, birds are an example, many kinds of insects, a female or a pair, a mated pair build a complicated nest, one that's valuable because of the effort and the usefulness of it, within which they raise young. And then in the vast majority of cases in which they get this far in evolution, they put food, in the case of a wasp that stings a big spider, paralyzes it, and then drops that into a nest that's built, lays an egg and then closes it so that the spider provides food for the full development of a new wasp. That's very common. In a small percentage of these cases when you look out over the millions of species of animals, a very small percentage, the female or the mated pair, think primitive wasp, think the wasp that gave rise to the ant, think cockroach-like insects that gave rise to the termite and so on, in a very small number of these percentage the female or the mated pair doesn't leave. They'd begin feeding the larva, the immature form until it grows up. And then this bunch of adults is at the nest and they disperse. Now what happens if, the geneticists call it knockout, you have a knockout of a gene that removes the tendency to disperse. Now they all stay together, mom, maybe dad, and the children. All adults now and they have no tendency to disperse.
And we know from other evidence they automatically organize themselves, for reasons I can explain, but I'm going to halt in trying to explain why that is an unintended consequence of a whole new other line of evolution, mom and dad become the dominants, primarily because they are first there and they're often the biggest. And the young become, their young, their first brood becomes the ones that goes out and forages, builds new nest cells and so on and we have a eusocial species. Twenty times only in evolution among the 8 million species, one of them finally, after all those hundreds of millions of years, it happened to be a big primate in Africa went across the line and pre-adapted that way and became eusocial.
Why did humanity, among all the species that have ever existed, come to dominate the Earth? Famed evolutionary biologist E.O. Wilson argues it's on account of humanity's unusual genetic mutation, or "knockout gene," that gave rise to eusociality, or the social condition that allows non-reproductive members of a species to support its reproductive members. Wilson walks through the unusual historical evolution of eusociality and discusses how humanity is one of only 20 species in existence that currently exhibit the trait as well as the largest primate species to do so.
Duke University researchers might have solved a half-century old problem.
- Duke University researchers created a hydrogel that appears to be as strong and flexible as human cartilage.
- The blend of three polymers provides enough flexibility and durability to mimic the knee.
- The next step is to test this hydrogel in sheep; human use can take at least three years.
Duke researchers have developed the first gel-based synthetic cartilage with the strength of the real thing. A quarter-sized disc of the material can withstand the weight of a 100-pound kettlebell without tearing or losing its shape.
Photo: Feichen Yang.<p>That's the word from a team in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at Duke University. Their <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adfm.202003451" target="_blank">new paper</a>, published in the journal,<em> Advanced Functional Materials</em>, details this exciting evolution of this frustrating joint.<br></p><p>Researchers have sought materials strong and versatile enough to repair a knee since at least the seventies. This new hydrogel, comprised of three polymers, might be it. When two of the polymers are stretched, a third keeps the entire structure intact. When pulled 100,000 times, the cartilage held up as well as materials used in bone implants. The team also rubbed the hydrogel against natural cartilage a million times and found it to be as wear-resistant as the real thing. </p><p>The hydrogel has the appearance of Jell-O and is comprised of 60 percent water. Co-author, Feichen Yang, <a href="https://today.duke.edu/2020/06/lab-first-cartilage-mimicking-gel-strong-enough-knees" target="_blank">says</a> this network of polymers is particularly durable: "Only this combination of all three components is both flexible and stiff and therefore strong." </p><p> As with any new material, a lot of testing must be conducted. They don't foresee this hydrogel being implanted into human bodies for at least three years. The next step is to test it out in sheep. </p><p>Still, this is an exciting step forward in the rehabilitation of one of our trickiest joints. Given the potential reward, the wait is worth it. </p><p><span></span>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
An algorithm may allow doctors to assess PTSD candidates for early intervention after traumatic ER visits.
- 10-15% of people visiting emergency rooms eventually develop symptoms of long-lasting PTSD.
- Early treatment is available but there's been no way to tell who needs it.
- Using clinical data already being collected, machine learning can identify who's at risk.
The psychological scars a traumatic experience can leave behind may have a more profound effect on a person than the original traumatic experience. Long after an acute emergency is resolved, victims of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) continue to suffer its consequences.
In the U.S. some 30 million patients are annually treated in emergency departments (EDs) for a range of traumatic injuries. Add to that urgent admissions to the ED with the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Health experts predict that some 10 percent to 15 percent of these people will develop long-lasting PTSD within a year of the initial incident. While there are interventions that can help individuals avoid PTSD, there's been no reliable way to identify those most likely to need it.
That may now have changed. A multi-disciplinary team of researchers has developed a method for predicting who is most likely to develop PTSD after a traumatic emergency-room experience. Their study is published in the journal Nature Medicine.
70 data points and machine learning
Image source: Creators Collective/Unsplash
Study lead author Katharina Schultebraucks of Columbia University's Department Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons says:
"For many trauma patients, the ED visit is often their sole contact with the health care system. The time immediately after a traumatic injury is a critical window for identifying people at risk for PTSD and arranging appropriate follow-up treatment. The earlier we can treat those at risk, the better the likely outcomes."
The new PTSD test uses machine learning and 70 clinical data points plus a clinical stress-level assessment to develop a PTSD score for an individual that identifies their risk of acquiring the condition.
Among the 70 data points are stress hormone levels, inflammatory signals, high blood pressure, and an anxiety-level assessment. Says Schultebraucks, "We selected measures that are routinely collected in the ED and logged in the electronic medical record, plus answers to a few short questions about the psychological stress response. The idea was to create a tool that would be universally available and would add little burden to ED personnel."
Researchers used data from adult trauma survivors in Atlanta, Georgia (377 individuals) and New York City (221 individuals) to test their system.
Of this cohort, 90 percent of those predicted to be at high risk developed long-lasting PTSD symptoms within a year of the initial traumatic event — just 5 percent of people who never developed PTSD symptoms had been erroneously identified as being at risk.
On the other side of the coin, 29 percent of individuals were 'false negatives," tagged by the algorithm as not being at risk of PTSD, but then developing symptoms.
Image source: Külli Kittus/Unsplash
Schultebraucks looks forward to more testing as the researchers continue to refine their algorithm and to instill confidence in the approach among ED clinicians: "Because previous models for predicting PTSD risk have not been validated in independent samples like our model, they haven't been adopted in clinical practice." She expects that, "Testing and validation of our model in larger samples will be necessary for the algorithm to be ready-to-use in the general population."
"Currently only 7% of level-1 trauma centers routinely screen for PTSD," notes Schultebraucks. "We hope that the algorithm will provide ED clinicians with a rapid, automatic readout that they could use for discharge planning and the prevention of PTSD." She envisions the algorithm being implemented in the future as a feature of electronic medical records.
The researchers also plan to test their algorithm at predicting PTSD in people whose traumatic experiences come in the form of health events such as heart attacks and strokes, as opposed to visits to the emergency department.
What would it be like to experience the 4th dimension?
Physicists have understood at least theoretically, that there may be higher dimensions, besides our normal three. The first clue came in 1905 when Einstein developed his theory of special relativity. Of course, by dimensions we’re talking about length, width, and height. Generally speaking, when we talk about a fourth dimension, it’s considered space-time. But here, physicists mean a spatial dimension beyond the normal three, not a parallel universe, as such dimensions are mistaken for in popular sci-fi shows.
Vaccines find more success in development than any other kind of drug, but have been relatively neglected in recent decades.
Vaccines are more likely to get through clinical trials than any other type of drug — but have been given relatively little pharmaceutical industry support during the last two decades, according to a new study by MIT scholars.