David Kenny: The Digitas Case Study

Kenny:    So, we started Digitas in 1996, and in those days there were some up and coming media companies, Yahoo, AOL, a company called Netscape Mosaic, and the question we had is if those companies changed media, how would the agencies need to change?  What kind of agency would be needed to work in those spaces, and we [concluded there] need to be agencies with more data, agencies with more analytics, agencies that work with people as communities, agencies that had the consumer producing [part of] the creative, and creativity that worked both in small segments as well as at large scale.  So, we built Digitas really by transforming a direct marketing business called Bronner Slosberg Humphrey and then adding to it the other things we needed to be the agency of the future.  We had quite a good run with that.  We went public in 2000 and continued to grow as we helped our clients adapt to the digital era.  And then, more recently, we sold Digitas to Publicis Groupe at the beginning of last year, and from there we formed VivaKi, which was to put Digitas together with all the media operations of the Groupe so that we could help all 50 billion euros of revenue, we could help all of our clients worldwide, and the media owners adapt to the digital era, and that’s what we’re trying to do now. 

David Kenny talks about the founding and evolution of his company.

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Scientists study tattooed corpses, find pigment in lymph nodes

It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.

17th August 1973: An American tattoo artist working on a client's shoulder. (Photo by F. Roy Kemp/BIPs/Getty Images)
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In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.


Image from the study.

As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.

Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.

"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.

It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.

Image by authors of the study.

Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.

The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.

“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."

Why are so many objects in space shaped like discs?

It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?

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  • Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
  • Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
  • Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.