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Cultural Factors in Decision Making
Sheena Iyengar: \r\n Well, you find that in certain cultures we… they don’t put as much of \r\nan emphasis in expanding their choices, so that, you know, one of the \r\nthings that I learned when I was in Japan way back in the 1990’s and \r\nthere were all these quarrels happening between the U.S. and Japan about\r\n allowing more American products into the Japanese market. I would go \r\nto these Japanese stores and you’d see, like, two kinds of toothpaste or\r\n five different kinds of potato chips. You know, or three kinds of ice \r\ncream bars and you’d see this and like this… okay they could clearly \r\nbenefit from some more choices and I remember having these discussions \r\nwith the Japanese because they you know they often like to go to Hawaii \r\nfor vacation because it was definitely much cheaper for them and I would\r\n ask them, “So when you go to Hawaii, you know do eat all these other \r\nthings?” And it turned out when they went to Hawaii they would go \r\nstraight and buy the same thing that they would buy in Japan. They just\r\n got it cheaper, which they liked. And so they would still eat the red \r\nbean ice cream or the green tea ice cream, but they didn’t really take \r\nadvantage of the variety and it wasn’t clear that they cared. I mean it\r\n wasn’t that they sat around thinking oh gosh I needed more choices in \r\nmy grocery stores the way I had come to think about it as an American \r\ngrowing up. So I do think that there are cultural differences in the \r\nextent to which we value having more and more choice.
To give \r\nyou another example, when I was recently in Russia I found that I \r\nthought I was going to give these people that I was interviewing a whole\r\n bunch of choice in terms of what they could drink while we were \r\nchatting. And I put out a good 10 different types of drinks for them \r\nand they just said, “Oh, okay, so it’s just one choice.” One choice? I\r\n gave you Coke, Pepsi, Ginger Ale, Sprite. They saw that as one \r\nchoice. Now why was that one choice? Because they felt, well, it was \r\njust all soda. I didn’t really give them anymore than one choice, soda \r\nor no soda. They didn’t… whereas we put a lot of stock in the \r\ndifferences between soda… I mean we might even go to war as to whether \r\nwe love Coke or Pepsi and our whole identity is wrapped up in that \r\nchoice. You know, for the Russians they felt that these minor \r\ndifferences between these various sodas was just hyped up and \r\nirrelevant. You know give me choices that are truly different from one \r\nanother, otherwise they don’t regard them as meaningful choices. There \r\nis a different attitude about, you know, how much differentiation there \r\nneeds to be between our options and how many choices do I need to have \r\nin order to make a choice.
Different cultures have different attitudes about options–and about how many choices a person needs to have in order to decide.
Sallie Krawcheck and Bob Kulhan will be talking money, jobs, and how the pandemic will disproportionally affect women's finances.
Health officials in China reported that a man was infected with bubonic plague, the infectious disease that caused the Black Death.
- The case was reported in the city of Bayannur, which has issued a level-three plague prevention warning.
- Modern antibiotics can effectively treat bubonic plague, which spreads mainly by fleas.
- Chinese health officials are also monitoring a newly discovered type of swine flu that has the potential to develop into a pandemic virus.
Bacteria under microscope
needpix.com<p>Today, bubonic plague can be treated effectively with antibiotics.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Unlike in the 14th century, we now have an understanding of how this disease is transmitted," Dr. Shanthi Kappagoda, an infectious disease physician at Stanford Health Care, told <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health-news/seriously-dont-worry-about-the-plague#Heres-how-the-plague-spreads" target="_blank">Healthline</a>. "We know how to prevent it — avoid handling sick or dead animals in areas where there is transmission. We are also able to treat patients who are infected with effective antibiotics, and can give antibiotics to people who may have been exposed to the bacteria [and] prevent them [from] getting sick."</p>
This plague patient is displaying a swollen, ruptured inguinal lymph node, or buboe.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention<p>Still, hundreds of people develop bubonic plague every year. In the U.S., a handful of cases occur annually, particularly in New Mexico, Arizona and Colorado, <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/plague/faq/index.html" target="_blank">where habitats allow the bacteria to spread more easily among wild rodent populations</a>. But these cases are very rare, mainly because you need to be in close contact with rodents in order to get infected. And though plague can spread from human to human, this <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health-news/seriously-dont-worry-about-the-plague#Heres-how-the-plague-spreads" target="_blank">only occurs with pneumonic plague</a>, and transmission is also rare.</p>
A new swine flu in China<p>Last week, researchers in China also reported another public health concern: a new virus that has "all the essential hallmarks" of a pandemic virus.<br></p><p>In a paper published in the <a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/06/23/1921186117" target="_blank">Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences</a>, researchers say the virus was discovered in pigs in China, and it descended from the H1N1 virus, commonly called "swine flu." That virus was able to transmit from human to human, and it killed an estimated 151,700 to 575,400 people worldwide from 2009 to 2010, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.</p>There's no evidence showing that the new virus can spread from person to person. But the researchers did find that 10 percent of swine workers had been infected by the virus, called G4 reassortant EA H1N1. This level of infectivity raises concerns, because it "greatly enhances the opportunity for virus adaptation in humans and raises concerns for the possible generation of pandemic viruses," the researchers wrote.
The word "learning" opens up space for more people, places, and ideas.
- The terms 'education' and 'learning' are often used interchangeably, but there is a cultural connotation to the former that can be limiting. Education naturally links to schooling, which is only one form of learning.
- Gregg Behr, founder and co-chair of Remake Learning, believes that this small word shift opens up the possibilities in terms of how and where learning can happen. It also becomes a more inclusive practice, welcoming in a larger, more diverse group of thinkers.
- Post-COVID, the way we think about what learning looks like will inevitably change, so it's crucial to adjust and begin building the necessary support systems today.
Scientists uncovered the secrets of what drove some of the world's last remaining woolly mammoths to extinction.
Every summer, children on the Alaskan island of St Paul cool down in Lake Hill, a crater lake in an extinct volcano – unaware of the mysteries that lie beneath.
The coronavirus pandemic has brought out the perception of selfishness among many.
- Selfish behavior has been analyzed by philosophers and psychologists for centuries.
- New research shows people may be wired for altruistic behavior and get more benefits from it.
- Times of crisis tend to increase self-centered acts.