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C. Raj Kumar on the Globalization of Law
Professor C. Raj Kumar is spearheading the initiative to establish India’s first global law school known as the Jindal Global Law School as a part of the proposed O.P. Jindal Global University to be located outside New Delhi (Sonipat, Haryana) and less than an hour from the Supreme Court of India in the heart of New Delhi. He was a Rhodes Scholar at the University of Oxford, UK, where he obtained his Bachelor of Civil Law degree; a Landon Gammon Fellow at the Harvard Law School, where he obtained his Master of Laws degree, and a James Souverine Gallo Memorial Scholar at the Harvard University. He also obtained a Bachelor of Laws degree from the University of Delhi, India; and a Bachelor of Commerce degree from the Loyola College of the University of Madras, India. Professor Kumar has held consultancy assignments in the field of human rights and governance. He is Consultant to the National Human Rights Commission in India. He has been a Consultant to the United Nations University, Tokyo; United Nations Development Programme; and the International Council for Human Rights Policy, Geneva. He has advised the Commission to Investigate Allegations of Bribery or Corruption in Sri Lanka and the National Human Rights Commission in India on issues relating to corruption and good governance.Professor Kumar’s areas of specialization, include, human rights and development, corruption and governance, law and disaster management, comparative constitutional law and legal education. He has more than hundred publications to his credit and has published widely in journals and law reviews in Australia, Hong Kong, India, Japan and the U.S. His three co-edited books are Human Rights and Development: Law, Policy and Governance, Tsunami and Disaster Management: Law and Governance, and Human Rights, Justice and Constitutional Empowerment.
Question: Do you anticipate the global integration of international law? Kumar: Well, I mean, I think the very question clearly suggest that we obviously need to have one, because there is so much of common threads that bring us all together as people, and I cannot think of any better institution than the United Nations, which is the single most important institution which can actually bring us together. Now, unfortunately, the role of United Nations and its effectiveness has been undermined in the last few several decades, and so we obviously have to commit ourselves to UN reform. But if you look at the role of international law in the UN context and outside the UN context, its role has not been completely negated. If you look at, for example, the significant developments that have taken place in the field of international trade law and the acceptance of the WTO law and the World Trade Organization as a single important institution and the appellate body of the World Trade Organization, in some ways, passing judgments about the decisions of sovereign countries. So sovereignty, in some ways, has been indeed successfully undermined when it comes to WTO and international trade law. Now where there is still resistance, as far as countries are concerned, is when it comes to, for example, issues relating to international humanitarian law, international human rights law, and, to some extent, broader issues relating to public international law. So the point here is that states, I mean, always look at their personal, their interest, and when that, when these interests are largely commercial in nature, in the context of trade law or intellectual property law, there is little resistance on the part of the states to subject themselves to an international tribunal in the form of a WTO appellate body. But when it comes to human rights issues or other issues which I just mentioned, there is still resistance. So I think, in the years to come, states will become much more confident about themselves, about their actions, and should also be responsible about their actions and should be mindful of the fact that there are these international institutions, in the form of the United Nations and the bodies under the United Nations, be it the international… all the bodies, whether the World Health Organization, the Food and Agricultural Organization, in the human rights field, the Human Rights Council. There are a number of international bodies already in existence. Now we have to empower these institutions better so that they are more effective in the years to come. There is, I don’t see any reason for us to, in some ways, reinvent the wheel, we just have to make the wheel work better. It’s actually worked pretty well, because we’ve not had a 3rd World War, you know, which would have been catastrophic for the whole world, and we’ve had a number of atrocities and violations and problems that have taken place, and global challenges have to be met globally. For example, the climate-change issue. Now, increasingly, climate change is a problem, which… And global warming cannot be solved by individual countries acting alone, and we need legal and regulatory policy, environmental and a number of other issues that need to be brought together through a multi-lateral process, and only a UN-type organization under its umbrella can be effective for this.
We must empower the preexisting international institutions and make them more effective, says C. Raj Kumar.
Sallie Krawcheck and Bob Kulhan will be talking money, jobs, and how the pandemic will disproportionally affect women's finances.
Health officials in China reported that a man was infected with bubonic plague, the infectious disease that caused the Black Death.
- The case was reported in the city of Bayannur, which has issued a level-three plague prevention warning.
- Modern antibiotics can effectively treat bubonic plague, which spreads mainly by fleas.
- Chinese health officials are also monitoring a newly discovered type of swine flu that has the potential to develop into a pandemic virus.
Bacteria under microscope
needpix.com<p>Today, bubonic plague can be treated effectively with antibiotics.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Unlike in the 14th century, we now have an understanding of how this disease is transmitted," Dr. Shanthi Kappagoda, an infectious disease physician at Stanford Health Care, told <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health-news/seriously-dont-worry-about-the-plague#Heres-how-the-plague-spreads" target="_blank">Healthline</a>. "We know how to prevent it — avoid handling sick or dead animals in areas where there is transmission. We are also able to treat patients who are infected with effective antibiotics, and can give antibiotics to people who may have been exposed to the bacteria [and] prevent them [from] getting sick."</p>
This plague patient is displaying a swollen, ruptured inguinal lymph node, or buboe.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention<p>Still, hundreds of people develop bubonic plague every year. In the U.S., a handful of cases occur annually, particularly in New Mexico, Arizona and Colorado, <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/plague/faq/index.html" target="_blank">where habitats allow the bacteria to spread more easily among wild rodent populations</a>. But these cases are very rare, mainly because you need to be in close contact with rodents in order to get infected. And though plague can spread from human to human, this <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health-news/seriously-dont-worry-about-the-plague#Heres-how-the-plague-spreads" target="_blank">only occurs with pneumonic plague</a>, and transmission is also rare.</p>
A new swine flu in China<p>Last week, researchers in China also reported another public health concern: a new virus that has "all the essential hallmarks" of a pandemic virus.<br></p><p>In a paper published in the <a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/06/23/1921186117" target="_blank">Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences</a>, researchers say the virus was discovered in pigs in China, and it descended from the H1N1 virus, commonly called "swine flu." That virus was able to transmit from human to human, and it killed an estimated 151,700 to 575,400 people worldwide from 2009 to 2010, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.</p>There's no evidence showing that the new virus can spread from person to person. But the researchers did find that 10 percent of swine workers had been infected by the virus, called G4 reassortant EA H1N1. This level of infectivity raises concerns, because it "greatly enhances the opportunity for virus adaptation in humans and raises concerns for the possible generation of pandemic viruses," the researchers wrote.
The word "learning" opens up space for more people, places, and ideas.
- The terms 'education' and 'learning' are often used interchangeably, but there is a cultural connotation to the former that can be limiting. Education naturally links to schooling, which is only one form of learning.
- Gregg Behr, founder and co-chair of Remake Learning, believes that this small word shift opens up the possibilities in terms of how and where learning can happen. It also becomes a more inclusive practice, welcoming in a larger, more diverse group of thinkers.
- Post-COVID, the way we think about what learning looks like will inevitably change, so it's crucial to adjust and begin building the necessary support systems today.
Scientists uncovered the secrets of what drove some of the world's last remaining woolly mammoths to extinction.
Every summer, children on the Alaskan island of St Paul cool down in Lake Hill, a crater lake in an extinct volcano – unaware of the mysteries that lie beneath.
The coronavirus pandemic has brought out the perception of selfishness among many.
- Selfish behavior has been analyzed by philosophers and psychologists for centuries.
- New research shows people may be wired for altruistic behavior and get more benefits from it.
- Times of crisis tend to increase self-centered acts.