Britain Needs to Join the Euro

Question: What does David Cameron’s recent victory mean for \r\nBritain’s role in the world?
\r\nJim Hoge: Britain’s role in the world regardless of who is in the\r\n government has been in a declining state for a long time and still is. \r\n My opinion and that of a number of people sort of in the government, \r\nbut it’s my opinion, as long as they hold off becoming a part of Europe \r\nin a very sustained way across the whole border currency and everything \r\nthey’re going to continue to decline and will be more and more a small \r\nisland nation with a big past.  If they join Europe and we see an \r\ninterest in reinvigorating the European American relationship to be sort\r\n of an entity at the top of the international system that is comparable \r\nin size both in terms of population and in terms of economics with a \r\ncontinuingly rising China and a continually rising Indian and ultimately\r\n a continuing rising Brazil then they have a future, but it’s a \r\nmultilateral future.  It’s not an individual future.  If they don’t do \r\nthat, if they stick with the Tory Government’s idea that they should be \r\nhands off about Europe except for some things here and there I think \r\nthey’re a diminishing power in the world and the idea that there will be\r\n a special relationship between the US and Britain will begin to fade.  \r\nThe more likely special relationship if there has to be one between us \r\nand just a nation in Europe is going to be between us and Germany.  \r\nGermany has once again by far the most powerful and prosperous and \r\nsuccessful country in Europe and we have to keep that in mind as we go \r\nforward.  Now as to does this coalition government represent something \r\nnew in British politics, they’ve had them before, but not in a long \r\ntime.  I think it does represent something somewhat new.  The two old \r\nparties, labor and the Tories have lost a great deal of trust and \r\nallegiance from the British public.  The British public is ready for \r\nmore than a two party system.  They’re ready for a more European system \r\nof a number of parties and we may see that begin to flourish even more \r\nif this coalition government is successful.

Recorded May 28, 2010
Interviewed by Jessica Liebman

Britain's role in foreign affairs has been in decline for a long time, and that will continue unless the country joins with other European countries in a very sustained way.

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Scientists study tattooed corpses, find pigment in lymph nodes

It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.

17th August 1973: An American tattoo artist working on a client's shoulder. (Photo by F. Roy Kemp/BIPs/Getty Images)

In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.

Image from the study.

As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.

Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.

"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.

It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.

Image by authors of the study.

Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.

The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.

“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."

Why are so many objects in space shaped like discs?

It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?

  • Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
  • Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
  • Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.