Big Think Interview With Carol Friedman
Carol Friedman: My days are kind of controlled by\r\nmy projects, so sometimes they’re album covers. Sometimes they’re commission portrait shoots. Sometimes they are editorial, so it kind\r\nof—I don’t dictate it.\r\n\r\n
Question: Why do you only shoot on film?\r\n\r\n
Carol Friedman: \r\nGood question. Well I guess\r\nI’m half traditionalist, half modern girl and I just never… I love the digital world and I love\r\nelectronica and after I shoot everything is digital, but I just... I don’t\r\nknow. I love my cameras. I love contact sheets. I love the visceral thing of film and\r\nI’m not positive that I can replicate my lighting digitally. My assistants tell me I can, but, just\r\nstubborn I guess.\r\n\r\n
Question: What equipment and materials do you like to use?\r\n\r\n
Carol Friedman: That is the least interesting part of my\r\nwork. I kind of—you learn it, you master it, and then you make sure\r\nthat it just disappears. You know,\r\nlike if I could have invisible lights, I would, and invisible cameras. I’m just really trying to get at my\r\nsubject and I respect the technical aspect, but it is not anything that I think\r\nabout at this point.\r\n\r\n
Question: Why do you spend more time preparing the\r\nsoundtrack for a shoot than the lighting?\r\n\r\n
Carol Friedman: For me there’s several components to picture-taking and it starts with my goals as an artist. It’s capturing I guess the inner life of my subject and then\r\nit is giving them their idealized version of themselves. We all look in the mirror and see us a\r\nlittle blonder or a little thinner or a little younger, whatever that ideal\r\nmight be and most of the people that I’m photographing are selling something,\r\nyou know whether they’re on the front of an album cover or a magazine or\r\nthey’re a corporate person ready to switch companies or a doctor selling a\r\nskincare line... so I want to help them achieve that. And when I worked at Motown\r\nRecords the head of the label called it, you know, he’d say, “Diva, you need to\r\nfix them.” So he called it fixing\r\npeople and that is really the joy of what I do is really... not to fix them, but\r\nto give them the them that they want to be visually and a big part of that is…\r\nfor me is obviously making them comfortable, making sure that our… because it\r\nis a dance. You know a photo session\r\nis really a dance and making sure that they’re comfortable and for me it’s the\r\nmusic, the music, the music. That\r\nis everything. So I do select a\r\nsoundtrack for each of my subjects and again my assistants you know they make\r\nfun of me because that is more important to me than the lighting, which I just\r\ndo in a minute right before, but I spend a long time on the soundtracks.\r\n\r\n
Question: What’s the most successful piece of music you’ve\r\nplayed during a shoot?\r\n\r\n
Carol Friedman: A lot of the people that I photograph are\r\nmaster musicians themselves, whether they’re singers or great jazz players and\r\nit’s kind of fun to figure out who they came up with and who they emulated or\r\nwho they idolized actually. And that's just... it’s a wonderful way to get at who\r\nsomeone is through their own love of music and going right at their\r\nsubconsciousness if you will. You\r\ndon’t play girl singers for girl singers. \r\nYou know, there’s certain things. \r\nYou do play Ellington for Bobby McFerrin. Sometimes like for Teddy\r\nPendergrass, Teddy has a whole lineage that came before his solo career with\r\nHarold Melvin and the Blue Notes, so he has a signature song, “The Love I\r\nLost,” so I planned it. I got him\r\nready. There he was. We put on “The Love I Lost” and the\r\nminute he heard that bass solo, boom, there was the album cover for “Joy,” and\r\nit really was joy, that is the title, because it was that visceral memory for\r\nhim. So sometimes it is an\r\noutright manipulation like that, but most of the time I’m just, I’m creating a\r\nmood that is a place of comfort for the person and a way for our dialogue to be\r\nmore fluid.\r\n\r\n
Question: How do you interact with your subjects so as to\r\ncapture their true selves?\r\n\r\n
Carol Friedman: You can’t play jazz without mastering\r\nimprovisation and if I make the metaphor that a photo session is like jazz\r\nthat’s, you know, because there is interaction between the players and you’re\r\ntrying to get to the emotional core of things and it is paying attention to\r\neach other and capturing something. \r\nYou’re after something together.\r\n\r\n
Question: Do the best pictures emerge only after you find a\r\n“rhythm” with your subjects?\r\n\r\n
Carol Friedman: Sessions can last... you know, even though it’s\r\nnot a session, I mean, I have a photograph of Francis Ford Coppola that I\r\nparticularly love. It was just one\r\nframe shot in an ocean with a play camera, but it’s waiting for that right\r\nmoment and that right exchange. \r\nThere are photo sessions that last 11 hours and the person feels like\r\nthey’ve done battle and you know, and at the end, end, end of their worst\r\nbattle fatigue, “Let’s do one more roll,” and the picture comes there, so\r\nsometimes… And it has to do also with the person’s… the person’s self-knowledge\r\nand confidence. There are certain\r\npeople that you don’t have to even work at extracting their inner life. It is just there and they’re happy to\r\nshare it with you. Bobby Short,\r\nyou know, I think the third frame that I took, bing, bing, bing, that’s\r\nBobby. He had nothing to hide,\r\nloves who he is, knows who he is, and other people, it’s a little bit of\r\ndigging sometimes.\r\n\r\n
Question: What are some common mistakes that novice photographers\r\nmake?\r\n\r\n
Carol Friedman: This whole business of all these lenses is ridiculous. You know, it’s like you have to capture\r\nyour picture. You have to create\r\nit. You have to see it. You have to seize it and you have to\r\nmove in to get it, so those lenses are just an escape of some sort or a\r\nshield. I think that people get\r\ninto trouble when they photograph something that they... that is not in their\r\nworld. It’s like when they say\r\n"write what you know." I can’t tell\r\nyou how many reshoots I’ve done from, you know, famous photographers who really\r\nlove just to shoot models and failed at shooting a Patti Labelle or someone\r\nlike that because Patti Labelle didn’t turn them on, so you have to shoot what\r\nyou care about. For me if there is\r\nnot a component of intelligence or music or culture or something that is fascinating\r\nto me I really don’t care about photographing the person. That is just it’s about that\r\npsychological exchange. That is\r\nwhat is interesting to me. I think\r\nthat people have to just go with their gut and follow their passion if they’re\r\nphotographers.\r\n\r\n
Question: Who have been your mentors in the music industry?\r\n\r\n
Carol Friedman: \r\nOkay. Just I really have\r\nbeen lucky to have a lot of mentors in the music industry. Quincy Jones, Ahmet Ertegun, Jerry\r\nWexler, Bob Krasnow, Bruce Lundvall, you know all label heads and that era is\r\nagain, the music industry era is gone, but those rules still apply, because you\r\nknow the record business is kind of a metaphor for life in a lot of ways, just\r\nbecause of all the components that had to come together and make an artist. And\r\nmost of these people except for Ahmet, you know, came from the street and built\r\nempires, and you asked before about what would I recommend to young\r\nphotographers. Make sure you have\r\nmentors, you know, to teach you, because you can’t just intuit life by\r\nyourself, especially now.\r\n\r\n
Question: Have you ever acted as a mentor yourself?\r\n\r\n
Carol Friedman: I think mentoring is essential in life, both\r\nbeing a mentor to someone and being mentored, and I think that when you are\r\nmentored it inspires a generosity in you to mentor others and that I know is\r\nwhat happened with me, so for instance, the people that come through my studio\r\nto work for me, it’s not good enough for me to just give them a paycheck. I want to help them get to where\r\nthey… You know I don’t care if\r\nit’s you know an intern or a full-time employee. I want to help them arrive at who they are or who they want\r\nto be in the world and that is one of the questions I ask them when I meet\r\nthem. You know, who do they want\r\nto be. So I think that that’s an\r\nessential part of life and if you don’t get to do that and receive it you’re missing\r\nsomething.\r\n\r\n
Question: Who have been your most difficult subjects?\r\n\r\n
Carol Friedman: When people warn me about someone—the label head or the publishing\r\nhead—that somebody is difficult, I’m in heaven. I just say "Bring them on and I can’t wait," because when\r\npeople are described as difficult and have a reputation as difficult it’s 99%\r\nof the time because they’ve been disappointed over and over again by people who\r\ndon’t really know what to do for them, and I know I’m going to make them happy\r\nand I can’t wait to work with them. And that happens time after time, so when I\r\nhear someone is difficult I can’t wait to work with them.\r\n\r\n
Question: Who have been your favorite subjects?\r\n\r\n
Carol Friedman: \r\nI love that question. I\r\nthink my most favorite subject was Lena Horne because she embodies soul and\r\ngrace and elegance and street. She\r\nembodies everything and beauty, great beauty, so she was a favorite\r\nsubject. Many of the jazz\r\nmusicians whom are no longer here. \r\nYou don’t realize that it's history when it is happening and then time\r\npasses and you look at a picture and you say "Wow, there is history attached to\r\nthat." You know, Dexter Gordon\r\nplaying, you know, in my studio for an hour after the session, things like\r\nthat. There has been wonderful\r\nmoments like that. This sounds so\r\ncorny, but I love my subjects. I\r\nhave to love them to do what I do. \r\nI have to fall in love with them to create a successful portrait of them\r\nand it’s not confected. It just\r\nhas to be, so it’s like a mother saying "I love all my children equally," but I\r\nreally do. I love my subjects.\r\n\r\n
Question: Do you feel more self-conscious when photographing\r\na fellow artist?\r\n\r\n
Carol Friedman: Robert Rauschenberg, one of my favorite sessions\r\nactually. I had never met him and\r\ncame to his studio, where he lives, where he painted, where he works. He has a building, had a building and\r\nthere was a few minutes that I had to wait and there was an incredible piece of\r\nhis that was forged of texture, metal, you know. It was probably a big rusted side of a truck or something,\r\nbut it was this beautiful textured metal, and Bob was great. He was just so wonderful, and I didn’t\r\nlike what he had on. I, you know... clothing is a big component, but that is another story, so I said can I look\r\nthrough his closet. He said sure,\r\nso I picked a shirt and then there it was. There was this leather jacket that was the same exact\r\ntexture of the metal, so you live for moments like that and again that is what\r\nI mean by paying attention. That\r\nis what I mean by mastering improvisation. It’s all there. \r\nYou just have to find it. \r\nSo I grabbed the shirt. I\r\ngrabbed the jacket and of course in the picture that jacket and that metal is\r\none thing and it is all organic and wonderful and he was beautiful. Great artists know who they are, so\r\nthere is no excavating at all. \r\nThey’re happy to share and I think that I’m really blessed actually to\r\nbe able to be in the presence of them and to give them back to themselves in my\r\nwork. It is really wonderful. I’m thinking aside from Rauschenberg,\r\nsame thing with Roy Lichtenstein, same thing. These painters, they know exactly who they are. Great jazz musicians, they know exactly\r\nwho they are. Great opera singers\r\nknow exactly who they are. Jessye\r\nNorman, there is not really work to do with Jessye. It’s just centering in on exactly who she is.\r\n\r\n
Question: Who would you most like to photograph that you’ve\r\nnever had a chance to?\r\n\r\n
Carol Friedman: \r\nFrank Sinatra, Pablo Picasso, Billie Holiday, Ray Charles, Bob\r\nDylan. What does Bob Dylan have\r\nthat those other people do not? \r\nHe’s still here. So Bob, call me.\r\n\r\n
Question: What is the story behind your Sarah Vaughan album\r\ncover?\r\n\r\n
Carol Friedman: Of all the singers, Sarah Vaughan is every\r\nsinger’s favorite singer, or else they just don’t know. And I was just so happy\r\nto meet her, and it was the ultimate compliment and the ultimate moment when she\r\ninvited me into her vocal booth and closed the door behind her, so I got to\r\nhear Sarah sing a capella with her headphones on and she made me bouillabaisse\r\nand requested me to do her album cover. \r\nIn those days there were no stylists or makeup artists for jazz artists. It was kind of not fair. There were budgets for rock and roll,\r\nbut not for jazz back in that day. And Sarah had, you know, she was a big\r\nwoman. She wasn’t petite and it\r\nwas easy to take an unflattering picture of her. Let’s put it that way. \r\nSo I thought about what I wanted to do and I wanted to do an homage if\r\nyou will to the Black-gama campaign that Peter Rogers had done, the brilliant\r\nPeter Rogers, “What Becomes a Legend Most?” And all of these women legends\r\nwould have their fur coats and be hugging themselves in the fur coat. So I had\r\nthat story in my mind to do that and the day came and it was the most exciting\r\nday and I asked that she bring her coat and her gowns and everything and she\r\napparently was terrified of having her picture taken, maybe because she had so\r\nmany bad pictures taken and I went downstairs and she got out of the limousine\r\nshaking her head no. “I don’t feel\r\nwell. I’m really sick. Let me go home.” \r\nAnd she hadn’t even come into the building, so I said just come upstairs\r\nfor a minute. She came in the door\r\nand really like a scared cat said "Bring me a chair," because she didn’t want to\r\ngo further than right inside the door, so she sat there and she peeked around\r\nand saw all the lights and got even more scared and she said, “Oh, please,\r\nplease, I’ll come back tomorrow. I’ll come back tomorrow.” And her manager is on the phone saying,\r\n“Is she there? Don’t let her leave. She’ll never come back.” And then out of nowhere she said, “Do\r\nyou like chili?” And I said,\r\n“Chili as in chili?” And she said,\r\n“Yeah.” She said she had… Sarah\r\nhad a great, like a little girl speaking voice. You know she said, “I’ll come back and cook chili for you\r\ntomorrow.” “Let’s make a shopping\r\nlist.” So my set assistant you\r\nknow chopped me onions, whatever it was that that was on the list and I thought\r\noh, she is tricking herself into coming back to cook for me, whatever. So I said, “Okay, under one\r\ncondition. You have to leave\r\nyour mink coat here.” And she\r\nsaid, “No Problem. No\r\nproblem.” So I took the coat. I put it in the back. Walked her downstairs and her driver\r\nwho was… Her driver back then was\r\nequivalent to people’s kind of advance people and bodyguards now. You know she knew how to protect\r\nherself and he said, “Where is the coat?” \r\nAnd I said the coat is staying here and he didn’t like that and I said the\r\ncoat is staying here and then the manager called me about ten minutes later and\r\nhe said, “Listen, if you want to leave the house tonight you just call me and\r\nI’ll send a couple of my nephews over to watch the house.” So everybody was worried about the coat\r\nand she did come back right on time, singing, singing, making her chili in my\r\nkitchen saying, “Are you stirring that chili?” while she was having her makeup\r\nput on, and it’s a picture I’m really proud of.\r\n\r\n
Question: What role did you play in making over the Rev. Al\r\nSharpton’s image?\r\n\r\n
Carol Friedman: Giving someone their style or bumping up\r\ntheir sense of style to be a better version of what it is, is part of the fun\r\nof what I do, and I actually approached Al Sharpton. They didn’t come to me. I approached his people because I felt that… I felt that his image wasn’t\r\nengendering the kind of trust that he should have for what he wanted to do in\r\nhis life and I actually approached him at a party and criticized his what he\r\nwas doing and his people got back to me and said, “Well what would you change\r\nand what would you do?” And I said, well, I’ll meet with him.
I don’t photograph anyone if\r\nI can’t meet with them first because if I don’t do that, then they’re just going\r\nto the dentist and they’re filled with fear. They don’t know who I am. Everyone hates their picture being taken and they’re nervous\r\nand they’re bringing all of that. \r\nWhen I meet with them they realize it is a collaboration and they look\r\nforward to coming back. In the\r\nsame way that Sarah Vaughan tricked herself, it’s that similar thing. That said, I met with Al Sharpton ahead\r\nof time because if he wasn’t going to let me change him… That was the point. I wanted to… I wanted to just change his image, tweak his image so that\r\nit engendered the kind of trust that he is after in his political life and I\r\njust told him: “The hair, the hair, the hair is not right. I see you’re working on it. I see it’s getting flatter. I see it’s getting smaller, but I want\r\nto take it further. Can I do\r\nthat?” And the people that were\r\nsitting around him were dying. \r\nThey couldn’t believe I was talking to him about his hair, but that was\r\nit for me, so I said, “I know you’re going to the barber before you’re coming.” “Have her get as flat as you can.” “Really come flat. And also I wanted to give him a\r\ndifferent look, more of a banker look, suspender look. I think someone in the press commented\r\non his makeover as if it came out of nowhere. That was my makeover. \r\nThank you very much.\r\n\r\n
So he came to the studio and, you know, we dressed him in his\r\nsuits, but again tweaked it. You\r\nknow, more of a kind of banker look for the reverend, and the hair, the hair\r\nwas still wrong, so I said with your permission and you know I have this what I\r\ncall glue in my hair and it is not a black hair product, so with his permission\r\nI kind of glued his hair down and that is the wonderful hair that you now\r\nsee. Oh God, I feel like a plastic\r\nsurgeon that has revealed someone. \r\nI am usually more discreet about my makeovers, but I think Al will be\r\nokay with it. Picking the music\r\nfor him was really challenging because I told him that he would love the music\r\nand it was kind of I don’t think he believed me and that was… He said, “You weren’t kidding about the\r\nmusic.” He said, “I loved the\r\nmusic. Thank you.” And you learn\r\neverything about someone when they’re in front of your camera or I learn\r\neverything about someone when they’re in front of my camera and you see are\r\npeople leading with their ego? Are\r\nthey leading with their compassion? \r\nAre they leading with their sexuality? Are they leading with their intelligence? And then it gets all broken down and\r\nwho they are fuses together. And again music helps that process. And I’m really\r\nfond of Al Sharpton because of what I learned about him when he was in front of\r\nmy camera, not because of what he says to the press and I put on among\r\nother things, on his soundtrack\r\nwas the original Sam Cooke version of “Change is Gonna Come,” and Al was\r\nvery, very moved by it and there is no need to explain to anybody why, but that\r\nis all about the genesis of who Al Sharpton is, so again that is what picking\r\nthat music is about. It’s hitting\r\nsomeone in their own deep consciousness of how they came up and how they were\r\nformed as professionals and humans and even children.Question: Which photographers have inspired you?\r\n\r\n
Carol Friedman: \r\nFor me there were two photographers, just two photographers, Irving Penn\r\nand Richard Avedon, and if, you know, I talk about music lineage I guess if there\r\nwas lineage I come from that school, not the Cartier-Bresson school, not the\r\nDiane Arbus school, although we all experiment when we’re coming up, and I had\r\nmy… You know, I did run around Paris\r\nwith my Leica being Cartier-Bresson, and I did, you know, knock on the door of\r\na gypsy family and be Diane Arbus. So we go through our stages. But I was always interested in the blank canvas, and I learned that the blank\r\ncanvas existed through Penn and Avedon, and I had very different energies and I\r\nnever got to meet either one of them or photograph them, but that’s kind of, their work is just, again, indelible.\r\n\r\n
Question: What makes a photograph art?\r\n\r\n
Carol Friedman: I studied with Philippe Halsman. He was a great Life magazine\r\nphotographer and it was his edict that a photograph isn’t successful unless you\r\ncapture the subject’s inner life, so I heard that, you know, before I was 20 and\r\nthat still resonates for me, so if you can’t… If you don’t know who someone is by looking at the picture\r\nthat I’ve taken then I haven’t succeeded, so in terms of greatness of\r\nphotography I think that extends to everybody’s work. You know you want to believe the moment. I mean there are rotten ads and there\r\nare great ads in the commercial world. \r\nI mean that Louis Vuitton campaign, it’s brilliant. And then there are\r\nother ones that I just want to roll my eyes and say are kidding? you know that\r\nyou take someone very famous in a Dolce & Gabbana ad, who is past the age\r\nthat she should be for this ad, you know, with fake cleavage and a cat that looks\r\nmiserable and it’s not working for me. \r\nYou know, and then you turn the page and there is a Guess Jeans ad that\r\nis so working and it is just singing off the page because it’s real and because\r\nthe energy is all there and all the elements come together in the right way.Recorded on April 21, 2010
Interviewed by Austin Allen
A conversation with the photographer and art director.
Nazi supporters held huge rallies and summer camps for kids throughout the United States in the 1930s.
- During the 1930s, thousands of Americans sympathized with the Nazis, holding huge rallies.
- The rallies were organized by the American German Bund, which wanted to spread Nazi ideology.
- Nazi supporters also organized summer camps for kids to teach them their values.
A Bund parade in New York, October 30, 1939.
Credit: Library of Congress
1930s AMERICAN FASCIST BUND CAMP HOME MOVIE BERGWALD NEW JERSEY<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="69d54b175b0d317cf9bfd688e4fa04f3"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/gOPeDaDcw3w?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Tea and coffee have known health benefits, but now we know they can work together.
Credit: NIKOLAY OSMACHKO from Pexels
- A new study finds drinking large amounts of coffee and tea lowers the risk of death in some adults by nearly two thirds.
- This is the first study to suggest the known benefits of these drinks are additive.
- The findings are great, but only directly apply to certain people.
Maybe you should enjoy this article with a cup of coffee or tea.<p> The <a href="https://drc.bmj.com/content/8/1/e001252?T=AU" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">study</a> involved 4,923 type 2 diabetics living in Japan. The average participant was 66 years old. All of the participants were taken from the rolls of the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry, a study geared at learning about the effects of new treatments and lifestyle changes on the health of diabetics. <br> <br> The participants filled out questionnaires concerning their health, diet, habits, and other factors. Among the questions were two focused on determining how much green tea or coffee, if any, the participants consumed over the course of a week. The health of the participants was recorded for five years. During this time, 309 of the test subjects died from a variety of causes. <br> <br> Subjects who drank more than one cup of tea or coffee per day demonstrated lower odds of dying than those who had none. Those who consumed the most tea and coffee, more than four and two cups a day, respectively, enjoyed the most significant reductions in their risk of death. This level of consumption was associated with a 40 percent lower risk of <a href="https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201020190129.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">death</a>. </p><p>Most interestingly, the effects of drinking tea and coffee appear to combine to reduce risk even further. Those who reported drinking two or three cups of tea a day and two or more cups of coffee were 51 percent less likely to die during the study, while those who drank a whopping four or more cups of tea and two or more cups of coffee had a 63 percent lower risk of <a href="https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/diabetes-coffee-and-green-tea-might-reduce-death-risk" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">death</a>. </p>
So, should I start swimming in a vat of coffee and green tea?<iframe width="730" height="430" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/LY0E-JQxeoY" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe><p> Not quite. </p><p> The primary takeaway from this study is that Japanese adults with type 2 diabetes who drink a lot of green tea and/or coffee die less often than similar people who do not. If this effect is caused by something in the drink, lifestyle choices people who drink that much tea all make, or something else remains unknown. The finding must be considered an association at this point. <br> <br> The eye-popping reductions in mortality rates are compared to the risk of death of others in the study. The people who died reported drinking less tea and coffee than those who lived. Unless you have several demographic and conditional similarities to the subjects of this study, you probably won't suddenly be at a two-thirds lower risk of death than your peers because you drink green tea. </p><p> Like all studies that depend on self-reporting, it is also possible that people misstated how much they consumed any one item. The study also did not look into other factors like socioeconomic status or education level, also known to impact death rates and potentially linked to coffee and tea consumption. </p><p> However, it is yet another study in the pile that suggests that <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/top-13-evidence-based-health-benefits-of-coffee" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">coffee</a> and <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/top-10-evidence-based-health-benefits-of-green-tea" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">green tea</a> are good for you. That much is increasingly <a href="https://www.health.harvard.edu/press_releases/health-benefits-linked-to-drinking-tea" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">agreed</a><a href="https://www.rush.edu/health-wellness/discover-health/health-benefits-coffee" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> upon</a>. This study also suggests the benefits are additive, which is a new development.</p><p><br> So, while it isn't time to start the IV drip of green tea, a cup or two probably won't <a href="https://www.webmd.com/diabetes/news/20201022/coffee-green-tea-might-extend-life-for-folks-with-type-2-diabetes" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">hurt</a>. </p>
Logic puzzles can teach reasoning in a fun way that doesn't feel like work.
- Logician Raymond Smullyan devised tons of logic puzzles, but one was declared by another philosopher to be the hardest of all time.
- The problem, also known as the Three Gods Problem, is solvable, even if it doesn't seem to be.
- It depends on using complex questions to assure that any answer given is useful.
The Three Gods Problem<iframe width="730" height="430" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/UyOGZk7WbIk" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe><p> One of the more popular wordings of the problem, which MIT logic professor George Boolos <a href="https://www.readersdigest.ca/culture/hardest-logic-puzzle-ever/" target="_blank">said</a> was the hardest ever, is:<br> <br> "Three gods A, B, and C are called, in no particular order, True, False, and Random. True always speaks truly, False always speaks falsely, but whether Random speaks truly or falsely is a completely random matter. Your task is to determine the identities of A, B, and C by asking three yes-no questions; each question must be put to exactly one god. The gods understand English, but will answer all questions in their own language, in which the words for <em>yes</em> and <em>no</em> are <em>da</em> and <em>ja</em>, in some order. You do not know which word means which."<br> <br> Boolos adds that you are allowed to ask a particular god more than one question and that Random switches between answering as if they are a truth-teller or a liar, not merely between answering "da" and "ja." <br> <br> Give yourself a minute to ponder this; we'll look at a few answers below. Ready? Okay. <strong><br> <br></strong>George Boolos' <a href="https://www.pdcnet.org/8525737F00588A37/file/31B21D0580E8B125852577CA0060ABC9/$FILE/harvardreview_1996_0006_0001_0060_0063.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">solution</a> focuses on finding either True or False through complex questions. </p><p> In logic, there is a commonly used function often written as "iff," which means "if, and only if." It would be used to say something like "The sky is blue if and only if Des Moines is in Iowa." It is a powerful tool, as it gives a true statement only when both of its components are true or both are false. If one is true and the other is false, you have a false statement. </p><p> So, if you make a statement such as "the moon is made of Gorgonzola if, and only if, Rome is in Russia," then you have made a true statement, as both parts of it are false. The statement "The moon has no air if, and only if, Rome is in Italy," is also true, as both parts of it are true. However, "The moon is made of Gorgonzola if, and only if, Albany is the capitol of New York," is false, because one of the parts of that statement is true, and the other part is not (The fact that these items don't rely on each other is immaterial for now).</p><p> In this puzzle, iff can be used here to control for the unknown value of "da" and "ja." As the answers we get can be compared with what we know they would be if the parts of our question are all true, all false, or if they differ. </p><p> Boolos would have us begin by asking god A, "Does "da" mean yes if and only if you are True if and only if B is Random?" No matter what A says, the answer you get is extremely useful. As he explains: <br> </p><p> "If A is True or False and you get the answer da, then as we have seen, B is Random, and therefore C is either True or False; but if A is True or False and you get the answer ja, then B is not Random, therefore B is either True or False… if A is Random and you get the answer da, C is not Random (neither is B, but that's irrelevant), and therefore C is either True or False; and if A is Random...and you get the answer ja, B is not random (neither is C, irrelevantly), and therefore B is either True or False."<br> <br> No matter which god A is, an answer of "da" assures that C isn't Random, and a response of "ja" means the same for B. </p><p> From here, it is a simple matter of asking whichever one you know isn't Random questions to determine if they are telling the truth, and then one on who the last god is. Boolos suggests starting with "Does da mean yes if, and only if, Rome is in Italy?" Since one part of this is accurate, we know that True will say "da," and False will say "ja," if faced with this question. </p><p> After that, you can ask the same god something like, "Does da mean yes if, and only if, A is Random?" and know exactly who is who by how they answer and the process of elimination. </p><p> If you're confused about how this works, try going over it again slowly. Remember that the essential parts are knowing what the answer will be if two positives or two negatives always come out as a positive and that two of the gods can be relied on to act consistently. </p><p> Smullyan wrote several books with other logic puzzles in them. If you liked this one and would like to learn more about the philosophical issues they investigate, or perhaps if you'd like to try a few that are a little easier to solve, you should consider reading them. A few of his puzzles can be found with explanations in this <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/02/11/obituaries/smullyan-logic-puzzles.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">interactive</a>. </p>
But most city dwellers weren't seeing the science — they were seeing something out of Blade Runner.
On Sept. 9, many West Coast residents looked out their windows and witnessed a post-apocalyptic landscape: silhouetted cars, buildings and people bathed in an overpowering orange light that looked like a jacked-up sunset.