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A Looming "Disaster" for European Muslims?
\r\nJoan Wallach Scott: Well two things I can always plead, \r\nright? One, I’ll be dead by 2050, so it won’t matter to me and second, \r\nas a historian I always look back rather than forward, but those aren’t \r\nfair excuses for this. I think that unless the countries of Europe \r\nfigure out an accommodation with these populations it’s going to be \r\ndisastrous. It’s going to be increasingly... increasing numbers of riots,\r\n increasing divisions, not only along economic lines, but along \r\nreligious and ethnic lines and it will be a disaster. I mean I think \r\nfor me the most interesting thing I’ve seen and it is not a perfect \r\ndocument was the Bouchard/Taylor report that came out of Quebec. Do \r\nyou know about this? It’s a report. Charles Taylor the philosopher and\r\n Gerard Bouchard, I can’t remember what he does, were asked to write a \r\nreport about the accommodation of Muslims in Quebec and there it was a \r\nparticularly hot issue because Quebec is secular, although there is a \r\nlarge Catholic population that wants to press very hard for control or \r\npolitical influence in certain ways and they came up with a report about\r\n what accommodation and where to draw the lines and what mattered and \r\nwhat didn’t matter and I thought it was the most sensible document I’d \r\nseen in a really long time because it requires adherence to the \r\npolitical principles of the nation and of the region—democratic ones, \r\nrepublican ones—at the same time that it is pluralist in its tolerance, \r\nin its… Tolerance is a wrong word because as one of my friend keep \r\nsaying, “Tolerance means that you abide by something you don’t really \r\nlike.” I think "recognition" is the better term. So you recognize that \r\nthere are certain kinds of practices that need to be respected on the \r\npart of Muslim populations, praying five times a day for those who do, \r\nplaces where you can wash your feet and your hands before you pray. On \r\nthe other hand you say "We draw the line here." If you’re at a hospital \r\nand the only doctor on is a male doctor and you’re a woman you take it—which in fact many of the interpreters of the Koran will tell is already\r\n there to be or of Hadiths that come out of the Koran is already understood\r\n to be a practice and so on. But so you know "Here are the lines. Here \r\nis what constitutes respect and recognition. Here is what constitutes \r\nthe limit that can be placed on the kinds of demands that can be made of\r\n a more general public and of a more multicultural public. You can’t \r\nimpose your will, your truth on all of us." So it seems to me that that’s\r\n the kind of accommodation. That is the kind of policy that has to be \r\ndeveloped. Whether or not it will is another question.
\r\nThere is also a group of feminists in France who are Muslim feminists \r\nwho wear the hijab and French feminists, that is we would call them \r\n"white," but you know, French, French, Francais [...] they call native \r\nFrench. I mean all of these terms are loaded and it is very difficult \r\nto use them, but okay, so there are secular French women and headscarf \r\nMuslim French women and they came up with a statement of principle which\r\n seems to me to offer some of the answers and it is: "We are for \r\nequality in all realms. We are against the subordination of any \r\ngroups or individuals. No forced wearing of headscarves. No forced\r\n removal of headscarves." And that seems to me to sort of be pointing \r\ntowards the kinds of accommodation that Bouchard/Taylor offered in \r\nQuebec and that needs to be really addressed and thought through not \r\nonly in France, but in the countries of Europe. I think if they don’t \r\ndo it, it’s... one doesn’t even want to think about what the future, the \r\ndifficulties, the tensions, the humiliations, the riots. You know think\r\n of the 2005 riots. I mean I think more and more of that will be the \r\ncase unless there is some really serious effort to pick up some of these\r\n suggestions that have been made and work with them.
Recorded April 26th, 2010
\r\nInterviewed by Austin Allen
Unless the countries of Europe figure out how to accommodate Muslim immigrant populations, there will be increasing numbers of riots, and increasing divisions along economic, religious and ethnic lines.
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Gender and sexual minority populations are experiencing rising anxiety and depression rates during the pandemic.
- Anxiety and depression rates are spiking in the LGBTQ+ community, and especially in individuals who hadn't struggled with those issues in the past.
- Overall, depression increased by an average PHQ-9 score of 1.21 and anxiety increased by an average GAD-7 score of 3.11.
- The researchers recommended that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.
Study findings<p>For the study, <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11606-020-05970-4" target="_blank">published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine</a><em>, </em>Flentje and her team evaluated survey responses from nearly 2,300 individuals who identified as being in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) community. Most of the participants were white, while nearly 19 percent identified as a racial or ethnic minority. Multiple genders were represented with cisgender women (27.2 percent) and men (24.6 percent) making up a majority of the participants. Sixty-three percent had been assigned female at birth. For the most part, participants identified their sexual orientations as queer (40.3 percent), gay (36.5 percent), and bisexual (30.3 percent).</p><p>The JGIM study participants were recruited from the 18,000-participant <a href="https://pridestudy.org/" target="_blank">PRIDE Study</a> (Population Research in Identity and Disparities for Equality), which is the first large-scale, long-term national study focusing on American adults who identify as LGBTQ+. It conducts annual questionnaires to understand factors related to health and disease in this population. </p><p>Participants filled out an annual questionnaire (starting in June 2019) and a COVID-19 impact survey this past spring. Flentje noted that on an individual level, some people may not have experienced a big change in anxiety or depression levels, but for others there was. Overall, depression increased by a <a href="https://patient.info/doctor/patient-health-questionnaire-phq-9" target="_blank">PHQ-9 score</a> of 1.21, putting it at 8.31 on average. Anxiety went up by a <a href="https://www.mdcalc.com/gad-7-general-anxiety-disorder-7" target="_blank">GAD-7</a> score of 3.11 to an average of 8.89. Interestingly, the average PHQ-9 scores for those who screened positive for depression at the first 2019 survey decreased by 1.08. Those who screened negative for depression saw their PHQ-9 scores increase by 2.17 on average. As for anxiety, researchers detected no GAD-7 change among the study participants who screened positive for anxiety in the first survey, but did see an overall increase of 3.93 among those who had initially been evaluated as negative for the disorder. </p>
Risks among gender and sexual minorities<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="fc3fd1ae68b77bbbf58a6995638d6d65"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/EnUqDjCqg0A?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>The LGBTQ+ community is a vulnerable population to mental health concerns because of their fear of stigmatization and previous discriminatory experiences.</p> <p>Previous research by the Human Rights Campaign has found "that LGBTQ Americans are more likely than the <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/general+population/" target="_blank">general population</a> to live in poverty and lack access to adequate medical care, paid <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/medical+leave/" target="_blank">medical leave</a>, and basic necessities during the pandemic," said researcher Tari Hanneman, director of the health and aging program at the campaign.</p> <p>"Therefore, it is not surprising to see this increase in anxiety and depression among this population," Hanneman said in the release. "This study highlights the need for <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/health+care+professionals/" target="_blank">health care professionals</a> to support, affirm and provide <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/critical+care/" target="_blank">critical care</a> for the LGBTQ community to manage and maintain their mental health, as well as their physical health, during this pandemic."</p>
What should health care providers do?<p>The authors of the study recommend that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders in members of that community—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.</p><p>As cases of COVID-19 continue to mount, the sustained social distancing, potential isolation, economic precariousness, and personal illness, grief, and loss are bound to have increased and varied impacts on mental health. Effective treatments may include individual therapy and medications as well as more large-scale coronavirus support programs like peer-led groups and mindfulness practices. </p><p>"It will be important to find out what happens over time and to identify who is most at risk, so we can be sure to roll out public health interventions to support the mental health of our communities in the best and most effective ways," said Flentje.</p>
What we know about black holes is both fascinating and scary.
- When it comes to black holes, science simultaneously knows so much and so little, which is why they are so fascinating. Focusing on what we do know, this group of astronomers, educators, and physicists share some of the most incredible facts about the powerful and mysterious objects.
- A black hole is so massive that light (and anything else it swallows) can't escape, says Bill Nye. You can't see a black hole, theoretical physicists Michio Kaku and Christophe Galfard explain, because it is too dark. What you can see, however, is the distortion of light around it caused by its extreme gravity.
- Explaining one unsettling concept from astrophysics called spaghettification, astronomer Michelle Thaller says that "If you got close to a black hole there would be tides over your body that small that would rip you apart into basically a strand of spaghetti that would fall down the black hole."
The team caught a glimpse of a process that takes 18,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years.
- In Italy, a team of scientists is using a highly sophisticated detector to hunt for dark matter.
- The team observed an ultra-rare particle interaction that reveals the half-life of a xenon-124 atom to be 18 sextillion years.
- The half-life of a process is how long it takes for half of the radioactive nuclei present in a sample to decay.
A new study looks at what would happen to human language on a long journey to other star systems.
- A new study proposes that language could change dramatically on long space voyages.
- Spacefaring people might lose the ability to understand the people of Earth.
- This scenario is of particular concern for potential "generation ships".