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Studying philosophy has had a major impact on the power players of Silicon Valley.
22 May, 2017
Zeno of Citium and the new Apple campus in Silicon Valley. Credit: Getty Images/Wikipedia
<p class="p1">Silicon Valley is an ultra-competitive environment that comes up with the most exciting technological advancements of our modern life. Understandably, its executives are under constant pressure to deliver something new that will capture and better yet, disrupt, markets. To alleviate the stresses and open their minds, the execs have been known to experiment with <a href="http://www.businessinsider.com/silicon-valley-chris-kilham-medicine-hunter-microdosing-lsd-acid-microdose-productive-2017-1" target="_blank">microdosing</a> on psychedelics, taking brain-stimulating <a href="http://abcnews.go.com/Business/real-life-limitless-pill-silicon-valley-entrepreneurs-pursue/story?id=46454558" target="_blank">nootropics</a>, and sleeping in <a href="http://www.businessinsider.com/polyphasic-sleep-schedules-and-benefits-2013-10" target="_blank">phases</a>. What’s their latest greatest brain hack? Philosophy.</p> <p class="p1">Some philosophers are finding Silicon Valley employment teaching “practical philosophy” that you can use in business and everyday life. <strong><a href="https://andrewjtaggart.com/" target="_blank">Andrew Taggart</a> </strong>is one champion of this movement, offering philosophical counseling to tech leaders and anyone in need. The guidance focuses on using reason and logic to unmask illusions about your life or work. You can try philosophical counseling yourself, if you’d like, as Taggart offers <a href="https://andrewjtaggart.com/program/work-tog/" target="_blank">Skype conversations</a>. </p> <p class="p3"><span class="s1">Taggart rails against what he sees is the </span><span class="s2">“problematization of the world” - the idea that all the obstacles we encounter during our life, from drinking too much coffee to death, are problems in need of solutions to be discovered. He thinks that approach can obscure the true understanding of human life. In an <a href="https://qz.com/956682/philosopher-andrew-taggart-is-helping-silicon-valley-executives-define-success/" target="_blank"><span class="s3">interview with Quartz</span></a>, he says that rather than ask “<em>How can I be more successful</em>?” it’s actually more important to ask - <strong><em>"Why be successful?”</em></strong></span></p> <p class="p5"><span class="s3">On the more practical side, Taggert thinks philosophy can also help zero in on what a startup should build and, more generally, he advocates using the philosophical skills of critical inquiry to <strong>figure out the “bullshit”.</strong></span></p> <blockquote> <p class="p6"><span class="s3">“Philosophers arrive on the scene at the moment when bullshit can no longer be tolerated,” <a href="https://qz.com/956682/philosopher-andrew-taggart-is-helping-silicon-valley-executives-define-success/" target="_blank">says Taggart to Quartz</a>. “We articulate that bullshit and stop it from happening. And there’s just a whole lot of bullshit in business today.”</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="p6"><span class="s3">On the other hand, he also thinks that stopping BS is not the chief objective of philosophy. Rather, he warns against the dangers of <strong>“total work”</strong> - the all-consuming obsession with having to be productive and spend most of our time working rather than contemplating.</span></p> <blockquote> <p class="p8"><span class="s3">“Total work is always on the clock. Ever behind, always in a rush toward, or just behind, an approaching, encroaching deadline. Philosophy occurs when clock time falls away. <strong>It seeks to put us in the presence of eternity</strong>,“ <a href="https://andrewjtaggart.com/2017/05/04/total-work-the-chief-enemy-of-philosophy/" target="_blank"><span class="s4">says Taggart</span></a> in a blog post.</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="p8"><span class="s3">In fact, he thinks the commitment to “total work” allows the market to control too many aspects of our life. He cites a startup cofounder he interviewed who “asserted unequivocally his view that <em>all</em> human relationships are transactional.” Taggert thinks philosophy can open up this kind of thinking to a less solipsistic view that introduces thought and balance to people’s lives.</span></p> <p class="p8"><span class="s3">Outside of Taggart’s efforts, philosophy has always had a strong presence in Silicon Valley. Another philosopher who has made inroads with the tech crowd is <strong>Ryan Holiday</strong>, <a href="https://bigthink.rebelmouse.com/paul-ratner/how-stoicism-a-2000-year-old-philosophy-is-making-a-comeback-as-a-life-hack" target="_blank"><span class="s4">a proponent of stoicism</span></a>, an ancient Greek school of thought that emphasizes limiting negative emotions and self-control to find the true purpose of one’s life. </span></p> <p class="p8"><span class="s3"><strong>Peter Thiel</strong>, the legendary venture capitalist behind some of Silicon Valley’s biggest successes like Paypal and Facebook, was a philosophy major in college. He <a href="http://blog.karthickgopal.net/tim-ferris-interviews-peter-thiel-my-notes/" target="_blank">described</a> the importance of philosophy in helping him learn "thinking for yourself":</span></p> <blockquote> <p class="p8"><span class="s3"><span>"<span>Convention cannot be a shortcut for truth. Silicon Valley is filled with conventional thinking... The future is what they are focused on and people are not sure about it with just a few markers. They will find shortcuts listening to someone else without knowing or figuring it out. The question of thinking for yourself and breaking convention is very important in Silicon Valley and other places.</span>"</span></span></p> </blockquote> <p><img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xODQwOTk3OS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyNjc1NTYyN30.7owmfub3-mGLxRBPlJUPrSjlyhBKJQTUyWfKlAezOfM/img.jpg?width=980" id="7824a" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="70a49c5ac3b0557ab72ce257220ba680" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image"></p> <p class="p8"><em><span class="s3">Peter Thiel, PayPal founder-turned-venture-capitalist, at the National Press Club in Washington, DC, October 31, 2016. (Photo credit: SAUL LOEB/AFP/Getty Images)</span></em></p> <p class="p8"><span class="s3">Other Silicon Valley philosopher-execs include<strong> Stewart Butterfield</strong>, the CEO of Slack, who has two philosophy degrees. <strong>Paul Graham</strong>, the co-founder of the world’s first Y Combinator, a pioneer of startup funding and development, was also educated in philosophy. <strong>Reid Hoffman</strong>, the founder of LinkedIn, has a Masters in philosophy from Oxford. <strong>Carly Fiorina</strong>, former CEO of Hewlett-Packard and a recent Presidential candidate, was a philosophy major (along with medieval history) at Stanford. </span><span class="s3">The founder of Facebook, <strong>Mark Zuckerberg</strong>, also appears to read philosophical texts and has previously recommended </span><a href="http://amzn.to/2rtnsvk"><span class="s2">"The Structure of Scientific Revolutions"</span></a> by the philosopher of science Thomas S. Kuhn to his millions of followers.</p>
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technology brain hack brain intelligence philosophy Silicon Valley Andrew Taggart Ryan Holiday Stewart Butterfield Peter Thiel Mark Zuckerberg Reid Hoffman Carly Fiorina stoicism
The saying in coding goes: if you have to do a job more than once, automate the task. Bots will one day unburden you from these tasks.
23 August, 2016
circa 1878: The actress Constance Collier in the show 'Oliver Twist'
<p>The saying in coding goes: if you have to do a job more than once, automate the task. Unfortunately, it’s difficult to automate answers to questions, like “What’s the Wi-Fi password?” and “Who’s the head of marketing?” Those questions typically come through via email. But <strong>bots will one day unburden you from having to answer these common office questions.</strong></p> <p>It’s the hope that one day, bots will liberate us from meaningless tasks, allowing us to concentrate on the tough questions.</p> <p>Slack CEO Stewart Butterfield has openly stated, he wants people to get out of work early. Work hard when you're in the office and leave once you're done. "The most productive employees from my experience are those who go home at 5:30p.m., but are hyperfocused at work," Butterfield <a href="http://www.businessinsider.com/slack-ceo-stewart-butterfield-and-box-ceo-aaron-levie-bots-making-work-more-efficient-2016-8">said at a press gathering last week</a>. "People can only think really hard for six to eight hours a day."</p> <p>He believes giving bots the gift of artificial intelligence will save us from meaningless workday hours lost because of busywork and often-asked questions. He isn’t the first person to point out how unbeatable humans become when paired with a robot and visa-versa.</p> <p>Pentagon official Paul Scharre <a href="http://bigthink.com/natalie-shoemaker/former-pentagon-official-has-an-idea-for-how-we-can-avoid-a-robopocalypse">pointed out in a report</a> that when a human-AI team was pitted against just human or just AI opponents in chess, the human-AI team was unstoppable.</p> <p>“The AIs can analyze possible moves and identify vulnerabilities or opportunities the human player might have missed, resulting in blunder-free games,” Scharre explains. “The human player can manage strategy, prune AI searches to focus on the most promising areas, and manage differences between multiple Ais. The chess AI, or multiple AIs, gives feedback to the human player, who then decides what move to make.”</p> <p>Scharre was speaking more to human-AI teams on the battlefield. However, we may begin to see <strong>“<a href="http://www.fastcodesign.com/3058546/conversational-interfaces-explained" target="_blank">conversational user interfaces</a>” </strong>being built and offered through apps, like Slack. "It's an opportunity for us, where <strong>Slack becomes the browser and the command line for the enterprise,"</strong> he says.</p> <p>Slack has already integrated many enterprise apps into this chat-base service. So, it’s possible we’ll be sending reports and receiving analytics through one command line on one screen.</p> <p>The only issue that’s <strong>standing in the way is human language</strong>. Bots still have a <a href="https://medium.com/@tedlivingston/bots-are-better-without-conversation-fcf9e7634fc4#.x7tx5e6mr">tough time understanding conversational language</a>, which is why many chatbots employ either button-based choice responses or have their own command language. </p> <p>However, <strong>artificial intelligence and neural networks may help improve a system’s language</strong> to the point where it can answer basic, frequently asked questions, says Noah Weiss, Slack’s head of search:</p> <p>"Workers spend about 20 percent of their time looking for information, or looking for a person who has the information they need," <a href="http://www.recode.net/2016/6/6/11863534/slack-artificial-intelligence-AI-noah-weiss">Weiss told Recode</a>. "And we've found that a lot of the questions people have are asked over and over again."</p> <p>In time, though, Slack hopes one day it’s app will be able to predict your role in a company, automate tasks you do everyday, and eventually become something like an assistant.</p>
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chatbots robots automation Stewart Butterfield Paul Scharre AI productivity human resources Noah Weiss efficiency business management