from the world's big
Price gouging is prohibited in 34 US states and Washington D.C. But two scholars ask whether that's the way it should be.
- Paper products, hand sanitizer, masks, and cleaning wipes—all are in high demand and short supply during the COVID-19 crisis.
- Price gougers are viewed as villains in this crisis—but two scholars argue that price gouging is, in most cases, morally permissible.
- Increased prices prevent unnecessary hoarding. Buyers purchase only what they need when they need it. Also, producers are incentivized to make more. When the supply rises, prices will fall.
Should pharmaceutical companies pay people for their plasma? Here's why paid plasma is a hot ethical issue.
- Human blood is made up of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. Plasma is the liquid part of blood. It is used to treat rare blood conditions and has an increasing number of medical applications.
- It is a $26 billion industry, and the US is a major exporter of plasma to other nations. Most nations do not collect enough plasma to sustain therapies for their own citizens. The US has such a large supply of plasma because it pays people to donate plasma—a controversial practice.
- Is it ethical for people to be paid for their plasma? Here, Peter Jaworski, an ethics scholar, explains five key arguments people make against paying people for plasma—safety, security, altruism, commodification, and exploitation—and explains his views on them. What do you think?
Facing a shortage of medical resources, doctors in the U.S. may have to make difficult moral decisions over how to allocate care.
Antonio Masiello / Getty
- The U.S. likely doesn't have enough ICU beds or ventilators to effectively manage an influx of COVID-19 patients.
- Italy has been dealing with a shortage of medical resources for weeks. Doctors there have been trying to prioritize care based on who's most likely to benefit.
- Doctors in the U.S. will likely take a similar utilitarian approach, if resources become scarce.
Laura Lezza / Getty<p>The most sobering part of the Italian guidelines is perhaps the suggestion that it may be necessary to set an age limit for admission to ICUs. But is turning away elderly patients to allocate resources on "those who have a much greater probability of survival and life expectancy" a utilitarian decision that goes too far?</p><p>In deontological ethics, the answer may be yes. Deontology is a normative ethical theory that says the morality of an action is based on whether the action itself is right or wrong, not on the consequences the action produces.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"The deontologist might well start with a justice argument: each person is individually valuable and should have an equal chance of health care," Anders Sandberg, a philosopher at the Future of Humanity Institute at the Oxford University, told <a href="https://qz.com/1821843/ethicists-agree-on-who-should-get-treated-first-for-coronavirus/" target="_blank">Quartz</a>.</p><p>But in a situation where medical resources are extremely scarce, and treating every patient equally is simply impossible, even deontologists would likely agree that it's best to prioritize patients who are most likely to benefit.</p><p>So, how are American doctors thinking about the ethics of coronavirus treatment? A <a href="https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsb2005114" target="_blank">paper</a> published Monday in The New England Journal of Medicine suggests that most would support a strategy similar to Italy's.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Priority for limited resources should aim both at saving the most lives and at maximizing improvements in individuals' post-treatment length of life," the paper states. <strong>"Saving more lives and more years of life is a consensus value across expert reports."</strong></p>
A 6-step ethical framework for COVID-19 care<p>The medical doctors who authored the paper offer six recommendations for how to ethically allocate resources in the coronavirus pandemic:</p><ol><li><strong>Maximize benefits</strong>: Use a utilitarian framework to make tough decisions</li><li><strong>Prioritize health workers</strong>: "These workers should be given priority not because they are somehow more worthy, but because of their instrumental value: they are essential to pandemic response."</li><li><strong>Do not allocate on a first-come, first-served basis</strong>: For patients with similar prognoses, hospitals should use a random allocation system, like a lottery, to determine who gets treatment</li><li><strong>Be responsive to evidence</strong>: "Prioritization guidelines should differ by intervention and should respond to changing scientific evidence."</li><li><strong>Recognize research participation</strong>: "People who participate in research to prove the safety and effectiveness of vaccines and therapeutics should receive some priority for COVID-19 interventions."</li><li><strong>Apply the same principles to all COVID-19 and non–COVID-19 patients:</strong> "There should be no difference in allocating scarce resources between patients with COVID-19 and those with other medical conditions."</li></ol><p>These recommendations generally align with <a href="https://snlg.iss.it/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/AA-Hastings-Center-Covid-Framework-2020.pdf" target="_blank">existing</a> <a href="http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/sites/default/files/public/php/21/21_report.pdf" target="_blank">guidelines</a> in the U.S. and Canada for how healthcare professionals ought to allocate resources in emergencies. But not everyone agrees on every part of these strategies, or on what exactly it means to maximize benefits.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"There are arguments about valuing the young over the old that I am personally very uncomfortable with," a British researcher told the New York Times in a recent <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/24/upshot/coronavirus-rationing-decisions-ethicists.html" target="_blank">article</a>. "Is a 20-year-old really more valuable than a 50-year-old, or are 50-year-olds actually more useful for your economy, because they have experience and skills that 20-year-olds don't have?"</p><p>Still, utilitarian strategies seem to be the most popular in pandemic scenarios. Civilians seem to agree, too. A 2019 <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30316913" target="_blank">study</a>, for example, asked focus groups in Maryland how ICU beds ought to be rationed in the event of a pandemic. The groups favored a utilitarian approach almost identical to that currently being used in Italy: prioritize the young, and those with the greatest odds of survival.</p>
The least bad option<p>A utilitarian strategy may be the most moral, but that simply makes it the least bad among a set of terrible options. Unfortunately, this leaves doctors facing an <a href="https://aeon.co/ideas/sometimes-giving-a-person-a-choice-is-an-act-of-terrible-cruelty" target="_blank">'unavoidable moral failure'</a>, according to a <a href="https://blogs.bmj.com/medical-ethics/2020/03/16/the-moral-cost-of-coronavirus/" target="_blank">paper</a> recently published by Joshua Parker and Mikaeil Mirzaali in the Journal of Medical Ethics.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Choosing between patients knowing that this may lead to death presents an impossible situation and leaves doctors facing <a href="https://aeon.co/ideas/sometimes-giving-a-person-a-choice-is-an-act-of-terrible-cruelty" target="_blank">'unavoidable moral failure'.</a> Either the doctor performs as a deontologist prioritising the needs of the individual patient in front of them or as a utilitarian maximising the greater good. Either way, important moral principles are violated. Whatever the doctor does, something of moral value is lost. Whilst following utilitarian principles might be all things considered best, and the doctor has little other option, many will still retain feelings of guilt and remorse."</p>
Those who have experienced amputations often wonder what happened to their limb after surgery.
To prevent torturous experiments on organoids, some are calling for clearer definitions of consciousness.
- Mini-brains (also called organoids) are tiny lumps of tissue capable of generating rudimentary neural activity.
- Neuroscientists use mini-brains to conduct research and experiments that help them learn about the brain.
- As scientists generate increasingly complex mini-brains, however, some are concerned they might be experiencing pain.