Subscribe to our weekly newsletter
Rock study may have just revealed cause of Triassic mass extinction
Rocks from two hundred million years ago show us how everything died and how nothing is new.
- A new study suggests that the mass extinction that gave dinosaurs the evolutionary upper hand was caused by oceanic oxygen deprivation.
- Using ratios of sulfur isotopes, researchers could estimate changes in ocean oxygen levels in ancient seas.
- The authors suggest a similar mechanism as that which can cause dead zones in oceans today caused a mass extinction.
Living on Earth isn't always easy. The fossil record is littered with enough mass extinction events to have once made theories that they occur in cycles seem feasible. The "Big Five" events each killed an average of 75 percent of all species alive at the time, with the largest one wiping more than 90 percent of them. While the question of what caused these events is interesting as a curiosity in and of itself, the problem also takes on an existential one, as most people would like to avoid the same fate as the trilobites.
To that end, a team of researchers based out of the UK, China, and Italy have investigated the causes behind one of the most massive die-offs in history. In a new paper published in Science Advances, they suggest a depletion in oxygen as a cause for the event at the end of the Triassic Era 201.3 million years ago.
How to tell what the world was like 201 million years ago using rocks
The mass extinction that ended the Triassic period was a massive die-off that saw somewhere between a quarter and a third of ocean life vanish alongside most large land animals. Plants were not spared a culling either, with perhaps 60 percent of plant species also dying. The event took less than 10,000 years to carry out this morbid work. This remarkable event paved the way for dinosaurs to become the dominant land animal during the Jurassic period, as most of their competition was dead.
Explanations for this event's cause have ranged from gradual climate change, to asteroid impacts, to rampant volcanism. New evidence suggests that ocean anoxia, the depletion of oxygen supplies in the ocean, played a large role.
The researchers examined the levels of two isotopes of sulfur in rocks that would have been on the seafloor during the extinction event from British Columbia, Sicily, and Northern Ireland. The two isotopes, 32S and 34S, can become trapped in limestone and other rocks and exist at different ratios depending on how much oxygen is in the water around them. By examining the changes in the ratio of the two isotopes in rocks formed at the time, we can know what was happening to oxygen levels in the oceans hundreds of millions of years ago.
The scientists noticed "large spikes" in the ratio of 34S to 32S in the samples from all of the locations, indicative of a substantial fall in the amount of oxygen available. These findings can be applied far beyond the sites the rock samples came from, suggesting that oxygen levels fell across large portions of the globe-spanning superocean, known as Panthalassa, that existed alongside Pangea.
And you thought the Dead Zone in the Gulf of Mexico was bad.
This study isn't the only one suggesting Ocean anoxia caused the extinction event. A previous study from 2017 reached a similar conclusion by measuring the trace uranium levels in rocks formed at the time. Similarly to the ratio of sulfur isotopes considered above, the amount of uranium in these rocks varies with the amount of oxygen. That study suggests that the low oxygen levels may have lasted 50,000 years after their initial fall, with a full 250,000 years needed before coral reefs could recover.
In the present day, the researchers hypothesize that this anoxia was connected to significant volcanic activity at the time. By releasing massive amounts of greenhouse gasses, this would have both acidified the oceans by increasing their carbon content and lowered their oxygen levels by raising global temperatures, as warm water holds less oxygen overall. Together, these effects can annihilate marine ecosystems. It is known that major volcanic activity was occurring at the time, lending credence to this hypothesis.
It's a good thing that nothing is causing the oceans to heat up and have lower oxygen levels these days! Oh, wait. Never mind.
- Titanosaur footprints discovered on the roof of a French cave - Big ... ›
- This ancient crocodile walked on two legs 'like humans' - Big Think ›
A Mercury-bound spacecraft's noisy flyby of our home planet.
- There is no sound in space, but if there was, this is what it might sound like passing by Earth.
- A spacecraft bound for Mercury recorded data while swinging around our planet, and that data was converted into sound.
- Yes, in space no one can hear you scream, but this is still some chill stuff.
First off, let's be clear what we mean by "hear" here. (Here, here!)
Sound, as we know it, requires air. What our ears capture is actually oscillating waves of fluctuating air pressure. Cilia, fibers in our ears, respond to these fluctuations by firing off corresponding clusters of tones at different pitches to our brains. This is what we perceive as sound.
All of which is to say, sound requires air, and space is notoriously void of that. So, in terms of human-perceivable sound, it's silent out there. Nonetheless, there can be cyclical events in space — such as oscillating values in streams of captured data — that can be mapped to pitches, and thus made audible.
Image source: European Space Agency
The European Space Agency's BepiColombo spacecraft took off from Kourou, French Guyana on October 20, 2019, on its way to Mercury. To reduce its speed for the proper trajectory to Mercury, BepiColombo executed a "gravity-assist flyby," slinging itself around the Earth before leaving home. Over the course of its 34-minute flyby, its two data recorders captured five data sets that Italy's National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) enhanced and converted into sound waves.
Into and out of Earth's shadow
In April, BepiColombo began its closest approach to Earth, ranging from 256,393 kilometers (159,315 miles) to 129,488 kilometers (80,460 miles) away. The audio above starts as BepiColombo begins to sneak into the Earth's shadow facing away from the sun.
The data was captured by BepiColombo's Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) instrument. Says Carmelo Magnafico of the ISA team, "When the spacecraft enters the shadow and the force of the Sun disappears, we can hear a slight vibration. The solar panels, previously flexed by the Sun, then find a new balance. Upon exiting the shadow, we can hear the effect again."
In addition to making for some cool sounds, the phenomenon allowed the ISA team to confirm just how sensitive their instrument is. "This is an extraordinary situation," says Carmelo. "Since we started the cruise, we have only been in direct sunshine, so we did not have the possibility to check effectively whether our instrument is measuring the variations of the force of the sunlight."
When the craft arrives at Mercury, the ISA will be tasked with studying the planets gravity.
The second clip is derived from data captured by BepiColombo's MPO-MAG magnetometer, AKA MERMAG, as the craft traveled through Earth's magnetosphere, the area surrounding the planet that's determined by the its magnetic field.
BepiColombo eventually entered the hellish mangentosheath, the region battered by cosmic plasma from the sun before the craft passed into the relatively peaceful magentopause that marks the transition between the magnetosphere and Earth's own magnetic field.
MERMAG will map Mercury's magnetosphere, as well as the magnetic state of the planet's interior. As a secondary objective, it will assess the interaction of the solar wind, Mercury's magnetic field, and the planet, analyzing the dynamics of the magnetosphere and its interaction with Mercury.
Recording session over, BepiColombo is now slipping through space silently with its arrival at Mercury planned for 2025.
Research suggests that aging affects a brain circuit critical for learning and decision-making.
As people age, they often lose their motivation to learn new things or engage in everyday activities. In a study of mice, MIT neuroscientists have now identified a brain circuit that is critical for maintaining this kind of motivation.
Researchers find a key clue to the evolution of bony fish and tetrapods.
- A new study says solar and lunar tide impacts led to the evolution of bony fish and tetrapods.
- The scientists show that tides created tidal pools, stranding fish and forcing them to get out of the water.
- The researchers ran computer simulations to get their results.
Neil deGrasse Tyson Explains the Tides<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9913a65f847775722d7c23d40d78938b"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/dBwNadry-TU?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Most people believe themselves to be less at risk from COVID-19 than others similar to them, according to a recent UCL survey conducted in the U.S.