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Watch: Richard Feynman makes scientific concepts beautifully simple
Few could match the famous physicist in his ability to communicate difficult-to-understand concepts in a simple and warm fashion.
- Richard Feynman was a renowned physicist who conducted legendary work on quantum physics, the Manhattan Project, and investigating the Challenger explosion.
- Later in life, however, he became best known for his education work, gaining the nickname "the Great Explainer."
- His series, Fun to Imagine, works as an excellent primer to Feynman's unique educational style. Here are 9 science lessons he covers in his series.
Theoretical physicist Richard Feynman was unparalleled for his wit, warmth, and insightful understanding of theoretical physics. Being a gifted conversationalist with a powerful passion, Feynman loved to talk about theoretical physics and was good at it, so much so he was known as "the Great Explainer." Few others were able to approach the difficult and nebulous realm of physics and break it down into simple, entertaining, and informative nuggets of information. In his 1983 series Fun to Imagine, Feynman touches on a variety of topics from a big blue chair in his living room in Altadena, California. Here are 9 brief science lessons from this series.
1. Heat is just jiggling atoms
What we think of as heat is really just motion. Feynman explains that the sensation of heat is the "jiggling" of atoms — the jiggling atoms in hot coffee make it hot, and those atoms bump up against the atoms in the ceramic of your coffee mug, causing them to jiggle as well, making them hotter than they were before.
"It brings up another thing that's kind of curious," says Feynman. "If you're used to balls bouncing, you know they slow up and stop after a while. […] As it bounces, it's passing its extra energy, its extra motions, to little patches on the floor each time it bounces and loses a little each time, until it settles down, we say, as if all the motion has stopped." Instead, the downward motion of all the atoms in the ball have just been transferred into the floor, whose atoms are jiggling just a little bit more and has commensurately become just a little bit warmer.
Start the top video at 0:50 to watch this lesson.
2. Fire is stored sunlight
Carbon and oxygen have a somewhat paradoxical relationship; once "close" enough to one another, they form a very strong partnership, snapping together. But if they're too "far away" from one another, they'll repel each other. Feynman likens it to a hill with a deep hole in the top. "[An oxygen atom is] rolling along, it doesn't go down in the deep hole because if it starts to climb the hill, it rolls away again. But if you made it go fast enough, it'll fall into the hole."
As we learned before, when we talk about heat, we're really talking about motion, and vice versa. So, if we heat up an atom of oxygen enough, it can roll up this hypothetical hill and fall into the hole. On its way, it might bump into other atoms of oxygen, sending them rolling up their hills, and falling into their holes, which maybe bump other atoms of oxygen at the same time. This cascades, over and over again, until you have what we call a fire. Wood, for instance, contains a lot of carbon. If the oxygen around it heats up enough, the oxygen and the carbon can meet up and make a partnership together into the form of CO2, releasing a lot of energy along the way.
Where did this stored energy come from? Originally, it came from the sunlight striking a tree, which was then cut down and harvested for its wood. "The light and heat that's coming out," explains Feynman, "that's the light and the heat of the Sun that went in. So, it's sort of stored Sun that's coming out when you burn a log."
Start the top video at 7:18 to watch this lesson.
3. Rubber bands are jiggling, too
In addition to fire and the motion of atoms, heat is a big part of why rubber bands are stretchy. Rubber bands are composed of these kinked chains of molecules that, when stretched out, are bombarded by atoms from the environment that encourage those chains to kink up together again. Feynman proposes a little experiment: "If you take a fairly wide rubber band and put it between your lips and pull it out, you'll certainly notice its hotter. And if you then let it in, you'll notice its cooler."
"I've always found rubber bands fascinating," he adds. "The world is a dynamic mess of jiggling things if you look at it right."
Start the top video at 12:08 to watch this lesson.
4. Magnetic force? That's a challenge to explain!
Why do magnets repel? "You're not at all disturbed by the fact that when you put your hand on the chair, it pushes you back." With magnets, "we found out by looking at it that that's the same force as, a matter of fact […] It's the same electrical repulsions involved in keeping your finger away from the chair." The difference, Feynman notes, and the thing that makes magnets seem so unusual, is that their repulsive force acts over a distance. This is because the atoms in a magnet are all spinning in the same direction, magnifying the force such that you can feel it at a distance.
Start the top video at 14:53 to watch this lesson.
Richard Feynman while teaching.
5. Electricity: The reason you don't sink through the floor
It's pretty incredible that a wheel turning from the force of falling water from a dam can, when connected by copper wires, cause a motor to turn many miles away as well. If the wheel at the dam stops, so too does everything connected to that part of the power grid. "That phenomenon, I like to think about a lot. […] It's just iron and copper. If you took a big long loop of copper and add iron at each end and move the piece of iron, the iron moves at the other [end]."
In fact, electricity is the reason why you can't push your finger through a solid object. The negatively charged electrons in your finger are tightly bound to the positively charged protons in your finger, and the same relationship holds true for any solid object. Once you try to push your finger through something, the respective protons and electrons can't tolerate the addition of any more positive or negative charge — the electrical charge in your finger's atoms are neutral, and want to stay that way. So, the object and your finger push back very hard on one another.
In a wire conducting electricity, the electrical charge of the atoms is not neutral. The energy derived from, say, a dam, pushes electrons from one atom out, which repels the other electrons along the wire. We can use this energy to move a motor on the far end of the wire or turn on a light.
Start the top video at 22:29 to watch this lesson.
6. The mirror and train puzzle
Feynman described two puzzles he was given by his fraternity brothers at MIT. Why is it that when you look at yourself in the mirror, only the left and right sides are reversed and not the top and bottom of the reflected image? How does the mirror know to flip an image along one axis and not the other? Well, if you were facing a mirror with your nose facing north, the left and right sides aren't actually flipped—your right hand and your reflected image's right hand are both in the east. It's your front and back that have been flipped: Your nose faces north, and your reflected image's nose faces south.
Feynman thought this was an easy puzzle. A harder one is to ask what keeps a train on a track. When turning a corner in a car, the outside wheels have to go farther than the inside wheels, but cars deal with this using a differential gear, which helps each wheel to turn at different rates. Trains, though, have a solid steel bar between each of their wheels. How does the train stay on the track? The answer is that trains have conical wheels. When a train turns a corner, the inside wheels are riding on the thinner part, meaning they can rotate quickly without going too far, while the outside wheels are riding on the thicker part of the cone, meaning they have farther to go to make one rotation.
Start the top video at 32.05 to watch this lesson.
7. Your eyes are eighth-inch black holes
If a sufficiently intelligent bug were sitting in the corner of a pool, they could, in theory, observe the waves in the pool and determine who had dived in. This is what we do with our eyeballs. Like the bug in a pool, we simply take in this shaking stuff (the electromagnetic field) and can learn which objects have "dived" into our pool.
"There's this tremendous mess of waves all over in space, which is the light bouncing around the room and going from one thing to the other. Of course, most of the room doesn't have eighth-inch black holes [our pupils]. It's not interested in light, but the light's there anyway." We can sort this mess out with the instruments we carry around in our eye sockets. Feynman explains that our eighth-inch black holes are only tuned to a small slice of the waves in this pool. But the other waves, bigger ones or smaller ones, we experience as heat or as sound broadcasted from radios. The craziest thing about this to Feynman? "It's all really there! That's what gets you!"
Start the top video at 37:46 to watch this lesson.
8. Conceiving of inconceivable things
Scale, whether looking at very small things or very big things, is very difficult to conceptualize. The size of an atom compared to an apple, for instance, is the same as the size of an apple to the size of Earth. Feynman explains how difficult it is to consider very large scales, as well: "There's a very large number of stars in the galaxy. There's so many, that if you tried to name them, one a second, naming all the stars in our galaxy, […] it takes 3,000 years. And yet that's not a very big number. If those stars were to drop a one-dollar bill during a year, […] they might take care of the deficit which is suggested for the budget of the United States. You can see what kind of numbers we're dealing with."
Start the top video at 43:43 to watch this lesson.
9. Thinking is kind of nutty
Sometimes, we like to mythologize particularly impressive people, Feynman included. But thinking this way can be limiting. Feynman doesn't believe there are particularly "special" people — just those who work and study hard. That's not to say there's no difference between people, however. "I suspect that what goes on in every man's head might be very, very different. The actual imagery, or semi-imagery which comes when we're talking to each other at these high and complicated levels […] We think we're speaking very well and we're communicating, but what we're doing is having this big translation scheme for translating what this fellow says into our images, which are very different."
Start the top video at 55:01 to watch this lesson.
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Emotional intelligence is a skill sought by many employers. Here's how to raise yours.
- Daniel Goleman's 1995 book Emotional Intelligence catapulted the term into widespread use in the business world.
- One study found that EQ (emotional intelligence) is the top predictor of performance and accounts for 58% of success across all job types.
- EQ has been found to increase annual pay by around $29,000 and be present in 90% of top performers.
Researchers hope the technology will further our understanding of the brain, but lawmakers may not be ready for the ethical challenges.
- Researchers at the Yale School of Medicine successfully restored some functions to pig brains that had been dead for hours.
- They hope the technology will advance our understanding of the brain, potentially developing new treatments for debilitating diseases and disorders.
- The research raises many ethical questions and puts to the test our current understanding of death.
What's dead may never die, it seems<p>The researchers did not hail from House Greyjoy — "What is dead may never die" — but came largely from the Yale School of Medicine. They connected 32 pig brains to a system called Brain<em>Ex</em>. Brain<em>Ex </em>is an artificial perfusion system — that is, a system that takes over the functions normally regulated by the organ. The pigs had been killed four hours earlier at a U.S. Department of Agriculture slaughterhouse; their brains completely removed from the skulls.</p><p>Brain<em>Ex</em> pumped an experiment solution into the brain that essentially mimic blood flow. It brought oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, giving brain cells the resources to begin many normal functions. The cells began consuming and metabolizing sugars. The brains' immune systems kicked in. Neuron samples could carry an electrical signal. Some brain cells even responded to drugs.</p><p>The researchers have managed to keep some brains alive for up to 36 hours, and currently do not know if Brain<em>Ex</em> can have sustained the brains longer. "It is conceivable we are just preventing the inevitable, and the brain won't be able to recover," said Nenad Sestan, Yale neuroscientist and the lead researcher.</p><p>As a control, other brains received either a fake solution or no solution at all. None revived brain activity and deteriorated as normal.</p><p>The researchers hope the technology can enhance our ability to study the brain and its cellular functions. One of the main avenues of such studies would be brain disorders and diseases. This could point the way to developing new of treatments for the likes of brain injuries, Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and neurodegenerative conditions.</p><p>"This is an extraordinary and very promising breakthrough for neuroscience. It immediately offers a much better model for studying the human brain, which is extraordinarily important, given the vast amount of human suffering from diseases of the mind [and] brain," Nita Farahany, the bioethicists at the Duke University School of Law who wrote the study's commentary, told <em><a href="https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2019/04/pig-brains-partially-revived-what-it-means-for-medicine-death-ethics/" target="_blank">National Geographic</a>.</em></p>
An ethical gray matter<p>Before anyone gets an <em>Island of Dr. Moreau</em> vibe, it's worth noting that the brains did not approach neural activity anywhere near consciousness.</p><p>The Brain<em>Ex</em> solution contained chemicals that prevented neurons from firing. To be extra cautious, the researchers also monitored the brains for any such activity and were prepared to administer an anesthetic should they have seen signs of consciousness. </p><p>Even so, the research signals a massive debate to come regarding medical ethics and our definition of death. </p><p>Most countries define death, clinically speaking, as the irreversible loss of brain or circulatory function. This definition was already at odds with some folk- and value-centric understandings, but where do we go if it becomes possible to reverse clinical death with artificial perfusion?</p><p>"This is wild," Jonathan Moreno, a bioethicist at the University of Pennsylvania, told <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/17/science/brain-dead-pigs.html" target="_blank">the <em>New York Times</em></a>. "If ever there was an issue that merited big public deliberation on the ethics of science and medicine, this is one."</p><p>One possible consequence involves organ donations. Some European countries require emergency responders to use a process that preserves organs when they cannot resuscitate a person. They continue to pump blood throughout the body, but use a "thoracic aortic occlusion balloon" to prevent that blood from reaching the brain.</p><p>The system is already controversial because it raises concerns about what caused the patient's death. But what happens when brain death becomes readily reversible? Stuart Younger, a bioethicist at Case Western Reserve University, <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-01216-4#ref-CR2" target="_blank">told <em>Nature</em></a> that if Brain<em>Ex</em> were to become widely available, it could shrink the pool of eligible donors.</p><p>"There's a potential conflict here between the interests of potential donors — who might not even be donors — and people who are waiting for organs," he said.</p><p>It will be a while before such experiments go anywhere near human subjects. A more immediate ethical question relates to how such experiments harm animal subjects.</p><p>Ethical review boards evaluate research protocols and can reject any that causes undue pain, suffering, or distress. Since dead animals feel no pain, suffer no trauma, they are typically approved as subjects. But how do such boards make a judgement regarding the suffering of a "cellularly active" brain? <a href="https://bigthink.com/philip-perry/after-death-youre-aware-that-youve-died-scientists-claim" target="_blank">The distress of a partially alive brain</a>? </p><p>The dilemma is unprecedented.</p>
Setting new boundaries<p>Another science fiction story that comes to mind when discussing this story is, of course, <em>Frankenstein</em>. As Farahany told <em>National Geographic</em>: "It is definitely has [sic] a good science-fiction element to it, and it is restoring cellular function where we previously thought impossible. But to have <em>Frankenstein</em>, you need some degree of consciousness, some 'there' there. [The researchers] did not recover any form of consciousness in this study, and it is still unclear if we ever could. But we are one step closer to that possibility."</p><p>She's right. The researchers undertook their research for the betterment of humanity, and we may one day reap some unimaginable medical benefits from it. The ethical questions, however, remain as unsettling as the stories they remind us of.</p>
A 71% wet Mars would have two major land masses and one giant 'Medimartian Sea.'
- Sci-fi visions of Mars have changed over time, in step with humanity's own obsessions.
- Once the source of alien invaders, the Red Planet is now deemed ripe for terraforming.
- Here's an extreme example: Mars with exactly as much surface water as Earth.
Misogynists in space<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzU1ODkzMS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyNDEzMzY4OX0.XEEPJJnp75idUXzutmJ5ZGo35WYKxmVEyIiSwDpMeE4/img.jpg?width=980" id="6c715" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="2210c6d8590f7886eb6e4a89bcd6a50e" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="\u200bMars \u2013 and Martians \u2013 were a staple of 1930s pulp science fiction." />
Mars – and Martians – were a staple of 1930s pulp science fiction.
Image: ScienceBlogs.de - CC BY-SA 2.0<p><em>"Oh, my God, it's a woman," he said in a tone of devastating disgust. </em></p><p><em></em>"Stowaway to Mars" hasn't aged well. First serialised in 1936 as "Planet Plane" and set in the then distant future of 1981, the fourth novel by sci-fi legend John Wyndham (writing as John Benyon) could have been remembered mainly for its charming retro-futurism, if it weren't so blatantly, offhandedly misogynistic. </p><p>Fortunately, each era's sci-fi says more about itself than about the future. That also goes for how we see Mars. 'Classic' Martians, like the ones in H.G. Wells' "War of the Worlds," are creatures from a dying planet, using their superior firepower to invade Earth and escape their doom. That trope reflected 19th- and 20th-century fears about mechanized total warfare, which hung like a sword of Damocles over otherwise increasingly placid lifestyles. </p><p>Closer inspection of the Red Planet has revealed the absence of green men; and now <em>we're </em>the dying planet – pardon my Swedish. So the focus has shifted from interplanetary war to terraforming the fourth rock from the Sun, creating something all those protest signs say we don't have: a Planet B. <span></span></p>
How to keep Mars from killing us<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzU1ODkzNC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYzOTgyNTcwNX0.V7I3VFPch0oV8YDx95ZLLZFY7zEcyqSiG5uCAiMu2hg/img.jpg?width=980" id="f092e" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="5ca3b60a81a5f003a3e1ef467cf95f1a" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="Map of the surface of the planet Mars, showing the ice caps at the poles." />
Mars today: red and dusty, dead and deadly.
Image: NASA - public domain.<p>Cue Elon Musk, who doesn't just build Teslas but also heads SpaceX, a program to make humanity an interplanetary species by landing the first humans on Mars by 2024 as the pioneers of a permanent, self-sufficient and growing colony.</p><p><span></span>Such a colony would benefit from an environment that doesn't try to kill you if you take off your space helmet. Martian temperatures average at around -55°C (-70°F), and its atmosphere has just 1 percent the volume of Earth's, in a mix that contains far less oxygen. Changing all that to an ecosystem that's more like our own, would be a herculean task. </p>
From Red Mars to Green Mars<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzU1ODk0NC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYxNTE0NjA5N30.iloUVThQOBjnkP7HuLefzPlOeIDE8wOlfcXMQ7ZYDMw/img.jpg?width=980" id="f9ad2" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="05032082590ebcf98a6830576ae3815e" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="\u200bBefore and after images of a terraformed Mars" />
Before and after images of a terraformed Mars in the lobby of SpaceX offices in Hawthorne, California.
Image: Steve Jurvetson / Flickr - CC BY 2.0<p>So how would Musk go about it? In August 2019, he launched a t-shirt with the two-word answer: 'Nuke Mars'. The idea would be to heat up and release the carbon dioxide frozen at Mars's poles, creating a much warmer and wetter planet – as Mars may have been about 4 billion years ago – though still not with a breathable atmosphere.</p><p>Alternatives to nuclear explosions: photosynthetic organisms on the ground or giant mirrors in space, either of which could also melt the Martian poles. However, many scientists question the logistics of these plans, and even whether there is enough readily accessible CO2 on Mars to fuel the climate change that Musk (and others) envision. </p><p>Ah, but why stop at the objections of the current scientific consensus? Sometimes, you have to dream ahead to see the place that can't be built yet. In the lobby of SpaceX HQ in Hawthorne, California, Red Mars and Green Mars are shown side by side. The terraformed version on the right looks green and cloudy and blue – Earth-like, or at least habitable-looking.<span></span></p>
Or how about a Blue Mars?<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzU1ODk1MS9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYwNTkwNjU4OX0.sdccROyaHpYcw9C8E-4iICzMA_GNXsZXzL1XGcqDink/img.png?width=980" id="1ba6e" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="b3325bff53cb4b13cf77bff877961338" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="wet Mars map" />
A map of Mr Bhattarai's wet Mars, in the Robinson projection.
Image: A.R. Bhattarai, reproduced with kind permission; modified with MaptoGlobe<p>But why stop there? This map looks forward to a Mars that doesn't just have some surface water, but exactly as much as Earth – which means quite a lot. No less than 71 percent of our planet's surface is covered by oceans, seas, and lakes. The dry bits are our continents and islands. </p><p><span></span>In the case of Mars, a 71 percent wet planet leaves the planet's northern hemisphere mainly ocean, with most of the dry land located in the southern half. </p><p><span></span>Most of the dry land is connected via the south pole but is articulated in two distinct land masses. Both semi-continents are separated by a wide bay that corresponds to Argyre Planitia. </p><p><span></span>The one in the west is centered on Tharsis, a vast volcanic tableland. To the north, attached to the main land mass, is Alba Mons, the largest volcano on Mars in terms of area (with a span comparable to that of the continental United States). </p><p><span></span>It's about 6.8 km (22,000 ft) high, which is about one-third of Olympus Mons, a volcano now located on its own island off the northwest coast of Tharsis. At a height of over 21 km (72,000 ft), Olympus Mons is the highest volcano on Mars and the tallest planetary mountain (1) currently known on the solar system. Olympus rises about 20 km (66,000 ft) above the sea level as shown on this map.</p>
A new civilization<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzU1ODk1Ni9vcmlnaW4uZ2lmIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyMDEwNzQ0Nn0.vKa0nNqKdMTfWYG6behUPPg9giToq3Lx6CsWQ70eqCE/img.gif?width=980" id="7f62c" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="bcffffaf301663a42758cf4cb8e11a76" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="\u200bSpinning globe view of Mr Bhattarai's wet Mars." />
Spinning globe view of Mr Bhattarai's wet Mars.
Image: A.R. Bhattarai, reproduced with kind permission; modified with MaptoGlobe<p>Mars's eastern continent is centered not on a plateau, but on a depression that on today's 'dry' Mars is called Hellas Planitia, one of the largest impact craters in the Solar system. On the 'wet' Mars of this map, the crater is the central and largest part of a sea that is surrounded by land, a Martian version of the Mediterranean Sea. Perhaps one day this Medimartian Sea will be the Mare Nostrum of a new civilization. </p><p>To the northeast of the circular semi-continent is a large island that on 'our' Mars is Elysium Mons, a volcano that is the planet's third-tallest mountain (14.1 km, 46,000 ft).</p><p>The map is the work of Aaditya Raj Bhattarai, a civil engineering student at Tribhuvan University in Kathmandu (Nepal). Talking to <a href="https://www.inverse.com/innovation/mars-with-water-map" target="_blank" rel="dofollow">Inverse</a>, he said he hoped his map could help further the Martian plans of Elon Musk and SpaceX: "This is part of my side project where I calculate the volume of water required to make life on Mars sustainable and the sources required for those water volumes from comets that will come nearby Mars in the next 100 years."<br></p><p><br></p><p><strong></strong><em>Images by Mr Bhattarai reproduced with kind permission. Check out <a href="https://aadityabhattarai.com.np/" target="_blank">his website</a>. </em><em>Planetary projection and spinning globe created via <a href="https://www.maptoglobe.com/" target="_blank">MaptoGlobe</a>.</em></p><p><strong>Strange Maps #1043</strong></p><p><em>Got a strange map? Let me know at </em><a href="mailto:email@example.com">firstname.lastname@example.org</a><em>.</em></p><p>________<br>(1) The tallest mountain in the Solar system, planetary or otherwise, we know of today, is a peak which rises 22.5 km (14 mi) from the center of the Rheasilvia crater on Vesta, a giant asteroid which makes up 9 percent of the entire mass of the asteroid belt. <br></p>
Starting and running a business takes more than a good idea and the desire to not have a boss.
- Anyone can start a business and be an entrepreneur, but the reality is that most businesses will fail. Building something successful from the ground up takes hard work, passion, intelligence, and a network of people who are equally as smart and passionate as you are. It also requires the ability to accept and learn from your failures.
- In this video, entrepreneurs in various industries including 3D printing, fashion, hygiene, capital investments, aerospace, and biotechnology share what they've learned over the years about relationships, setting and attaining goals, growth, and what happens when things don't go according to plan.
- "People who start businesses for the exit, most of them will fail because there's just no true passion behind it," says Miki Agrawal, co-founder of THINX and TUSHY. A key point of Agrawal's advice is that if you can't see yourself in something for 10 years, you shouldn't do it.
After a decade of failed attempts, scientists successfully bounced photons off of a reflector aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, some 240,000 miles from Earth.