It may be time to call off the search for Planet X
Weird outer solar system orbits might be something less dramatic.
- Something is producing weird object orbits in the Kuiper Belt, but what?
- Instead of a massive unfound planet, it may be the gravitational pull from an equally massive disc of small, icy objects.
- Researchers created a model of such a disc that explained everything.
It's clear that something is warping the orbits of objects out at the edge of our solar system, but what that might be remains a matter of conjecture. Probably the most exciting theory is that it's a thus-unseen massive object popularly dubbed "Planet 9" or "Planet X," probably a better name as long as there's some debate about the status of the original Planet 9 — Pluto — and since "X" suggests the unknown at the same time as it's the Roman numeral for 10.
In any event, some have suggested that there is no hidden giant out there, but that the orbital distortions we're seeing are due to the pull of combined gravitational forces from a group of smaller trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) in the icy Kuiper Belt. This idea just got a strong boost from Antranik Sefilian, University of Cambridge, and Jihad Touma of the American University of Beirut in Lebanon. They have, for the first time, developed a model that demonstrates how such a combination field could generate precisely the mysterious orbits that have been observed.
The problem Planet X solved and the problem with Planet X
Out at the edge of our solar system is an area of dwarf planets and icy rocks, the Kuiper Belt. By and large, the orbits of these bodies, Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) , are influenced by our system's giant planets, Saturn, Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune. However, a few years ago, five KBOs caught astronomers' attention by having orbits that cluster together, suggesting that some single thing is pushing them into close proximity to each other. (As of this writing, about 30 of these outliers have been spotted.)
Crunching the math to figure out what could be doing this led Caltech astronomers Konstantin Batygin and Mike Brown to propose the existence of a perturber, a massive planet that's 10 times the size of Earth and has an orbit extending some 20 times farther away from the Sun than Neptune. A full circuit would take Planet X between 10,000 and 20,000 years. By comparison, Neptune only requires 165 years to orbit the sun.
The main problem with Planet X is obvious. Astronomers' best efforts to see it, thus confirming its existence, have come up short so far.
KBOs for the TKO?
Image source: Mopic/Shutterstock
"The Planet Nine hypothesis is a fascinating one, but if the hypothesized ninth planet exists, it has so far avoided detection," says Sefilian. "We wanted to see whether there could be another, less dramatic and perhaps more natural, cause for the unusual orbits we see in some TNOs. We thought, rather than allowing for a ninth planet, and then worry about its formation and unusual orbit, why not simply account for the gravity of small objects constituting a disc beyond the orbit of Neptune and see what it does for us?"
So Sefilian and Touma began modeling behavior of the TNOs in the presence of the known solar system planets plus a disc of small icy bodies, out beyond Saturn, that together had a mass roughly that of the proposed Planet X. Their initial virtual disc explained the orbits of some of the observed TNOs, though not all. When they started playing with the composition of the disc, however, the remaining TNO orbits could be accounted for.
One potential gotcha with the disc hypothesis is that in order for a disc of sufficient mass to exist, the mass of the entire Kuiper Belt would have to be somewhere between a few times and 10 times Earth's mass.
Of course, Sefilian's and Touma's disc is thus far as unseen as Planet X. "The problem," explains Sefilian, "is when you're observing the disc from inside the system, it's almost impossible to see the whole thing at once. While we don't have direct observational evidence for the disc, neither do we have it for Planet 9, which is why we're investigating other possibilities. Nevertheless, it is interesting to note that observations of Kuiper belt analogs around other stars, as well as planet formation models, reveal massive remnant populations of debris."
So, Planet X or the newly proposed disc? Not need to choose yet, Sefilian says. "It's also possible that both things could be true — there could be a massive disc and a ninth planet. With the discovery of each new TNO, we gather more evidence that might help explain their behavior."
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What can 3D printing do for medicine? The "sky is the limit," says Northwell Health researcher Dr. Todd Goldstein.
- Medical professionals are currently using 3D printers to create prosthetics and patient-specific organ models that doctors can use to prepare for surgery.
- Eventually, scientists hope to print patient-specific organs that can be transplanted safely into the human body.
- Northwell Health, New York State's largest health care provider, is pioneering 3D printing in medicine in three key ways.
The controversial herbicide is everywhere, apparently.
- U.S. PIRG tested 20 beers and wines, including organics, and found Roundup's active ingredient in almost all of them.
- A jury on August 2018 awarded a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma victim $289 million in Roundup damages.
- Bayer/Monsanto says Roundup is totally safe. Others disagree.
The pizza giant Domino's partners with a Silicon Valley startup to start delivering pizza by robots.
- Domino's partnered with the Silicon Valley startup Nuro to have robot cars deliver pizza.
- The trial run will begin in Houston later this year.
- The robots will be half a regular car and will need to be unlocked by a PIN code.
Would you have to tip robots? You might be answering that question sooner than you think as Domino's is about to start using robots for delivering pizza. Later this year a fleet of self-driving robotic vehicles will be spreading the joy of pizza throughout the Houston area for the famous pizza manufacturer, using delivery cars made by the Silicon Valley startup Nuro.
The startup, founded by Google veterans, raised $940 million in February and has already been delivering groceries for Kroger around Houston. Partnering with the pizza juggernaut Domino's, which delivers close to 3 million pizzas a day, is another logical step for the expanding drone car business.
Kevin Vasconi of Domino's explained in a press release that they see these specially-designed robots as "a valuable partner in our autonomous vehicle journey," adding "The opportunity to bring our customers the choice of an unmanned delivery experience, and our operators an additional delivery solution during a busy store rush, is an important part of our autonomous vehicle testing."
How will they work exactly? Nuro explained in its own press release that this "opportunity to use Nuro's autonomous delivery" will be available for some of the customers who order online. Once they opt in, they'll be able to track the car via an app. When the vehicle gets to them, the customers will use a special PIN code to unlock the pizza compartment.
Nuro and its competitors Udelv and Robomart have been focusing specifically on developing such "last-mile product delivery" machines, reports Arstechnica. Their specially-made R1 vehicle is about half the size of a regular passenger car and doesn't offer any room for a driver. This makes it safer and lighter too, with less potential to cause harm in case of an accident. It also sticks to a fairly low speed of under 25 miles an hour and slams on the breaks at the first sign of trouble.
What also helps such robot cars is "geofencing" technology which confines them to a limited area surrounding the store.
For now, the cars are still tracked around the neighborhoods by human-driven vehicles, with monitors to make sure nothing goes haywire. But these "chase cars" should be phased out eventually, an important milestone in the evolution of your robot pizza drivers.
Check out how Nuro's vehicles work:
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