How to learn a new language while you sleep

Sleep encoding turns out to be a real thing.

  • While it was believed you cannot learn new information while asleep, a new study in Switzerland makes the case for sleep encoding.
  • 41 native German speakers were introduced to a nonsense word alongside a German word to forge a relationship.
  • When tested while awake, the real word was defined by the nonsense word 10 percent higher than random chance, suggesting a bond was formed while asleep.

On a recent trip to Berlin, I mostly conversed with my taxi driver through Google Translate. His English was much better than my Turkish, but as we began discussing two of the finer things in life—music and cuisine—he wanted to discuss his favorite ney players and direct me to the best kabobs in town. I was grateful, if not a little frightened as he tried to manage the phone while veering around the tight corners of the city.

Turkish was never at the top of my list of languages to learn, though after watching "Ida" a few weeks ago, my wife and I discussed Polish as an option. She speaks numerous languages while I can barely get by in Mexico on my lackluster Spanish. I spent three years in high school studying it, along with dedicating time to Hungarian tapes, but nothing has stuck.

What if I was missing an essential training method, such as… sleeping?

That's what a new study, published in Current Biology, claims. It's not as if playing those tapes will automatically grant you linguistic superpowers. That said, the research is another indicator that we don't necessarily know where the boundaries of consciousness begin and end.

That's because we often treat consciousness like a light: It's on when awake and off when asleep. Untrue. There are many autonomic processes that easily cross that divide—they have to, or else we wouldn't be alive—that inform conscious decision-making. Unconscious activities inform us all the time.

4 useful skills you can actually learn while you sleep

Sleep is essential for good health, but it's also necessary for retaining information. This is why all-night cramming before a test is counterproductive. A restful night's sleep helps us remember much more effectively than skipping out on our slumber. Megan Schmidt writes for Discover:

While we catch Z's, our brains are busy organizing and consolidating the information and events we encountered that day. Important stuff gets filed away, while unimportant stuff gets deleted to make room for new learning.

Researchers at the Decoding Sleep Interfaculty Research Cooperation—those Swiss really know how to name institutions—fed sleepers a fake word to associate with a real one. In one instance, it was tofer and Haus, the German word for "house." These words were played during the peak of slow waves in the sleep cycle, when researchers speculated learning might occur. Alas, they did.

Reactivations of sleep-formed associations were mirrored by brain activation increases measured with fMRI in cortical language areas and the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for relational binding. We infer that implicit relational binding had occurred during peaks of slow oscillations, recruiting a hippocampal-neocortical network comparable to vocabulary learning in the waking state.

The odds were against them. During slow-wave sleep, plasticity-related genes are in short supply; long-term potentiation is limited; acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that supports learning, is also reduced. And yet, given positive results in mice, the researchers recognized that sounds, words, and even tone-odor combinations can be encoded during sleep. A relational binding of vocabulary, such as tofer-Haus, would signify that such an encoding is possible.

The science of sleep

Enter Marc Züst, first co-author:

What we found in our study is that the sleeping brain can actually encode new information and store it for long term. Even more, the sleeping brain is able to make new associations.

Forty-one native German speakers took a nap. The "pseudoword" was presented four times in succession, like a bad horror movie: tofer-Haus, Haus-tofer, tofer-Haus, Haus-tofer. The somnambulist rhythm matched the slow waves experienced while unconscious.

That wasn't the only word pairing, mind you. An average of 36.51 word pairs were repeated 146.05 times over the course of the nap. The idea was that tofer would be related to Haus, so that even though the former word is nonsense, the volunteer would relate it to the real word upon awakening, when they were presented the nonsensical word without priming. It worked.

Researchers found participants were able to correctly classify foreign words at an accuracy rate that was 10 percent higher than random chance, as long as they heard the word at precise times during slow wave sleep. The result suggests that the approach the researchers used causes the brain to form memory traces, or changes in the brain that help us store a memory.

So, if you know that a biktum is a bird, someone might have placed speakers in your bedroom. More importantly, there might be a new training method for learning an actual foreign language. Leave the made-up verbiage to experts, like Sigur Rós and Björk. For a crash course in Polish, press play before hitting the hay.

--

Stay in touch with Derek on Twitter and Facebook.

Got a question for a real NASA astronomer? Ask it here!

NASA astronomer Michelle Thaller is coming back to Big Think to answer YOUR questions! Here's all you need to know to submit your science-related inquiries.

Videos

Big Think's amazing audience has responded so well to our videos from NASA astronomer and Assistant Director for Science Communication Michelle Thaller that we couldn't wait to bring her back for more!

And this time, she's ready to tackle any questions you're willing to throw at her, like, "How big is the Universe?", "Am I really made of stars?" or, "How long until Elon Musk starts a colony on Mars?"

All you have to do is submit your questions to the form below, and we'll use them for an upcoming Q+A session with Michelle. You know what to do, Big Thinkers!

Keep reading Show less

New study finds strength of imagination not associated with creative ability or achievement

If you have a strong imagination, this won't help you with academic study.

Mind & Brain

Imagination is sometimes claimed to be a uniquely human ability, and it has long intrigued psychologists. "Nevertheless, our understanding of the benefits and risks that individual differences in imagination hold for psychological outcomes is currently limited," note two researchers who have created a new psychometric test – the Imaginative Behaviour Engagement Scale (IBES) – for measuring how much imagination a person has, and then used it to investigate whether, as some earlier work hinted, having a stronger imagination might aid learning and creativity.

Keep reading Show less

7 common traits of self-transcended people

Maslow's highest level on the hierarchy of needs.

Shutterstock/Big Think
Personal Growth
  • Self-transcendence is the final and oft forgotten peak of Maslow's pyramid.
  • Before transcending yourself, however, you need to be self-actualized.
  • The foundation of self-transcended people is caring for others and higher ideals.
Keep reading Show less

Why are conservatives healthier than liberals? Personal responsibility, study suggests.

An emphasis on personal responsibility might explain why conservatives tend to be in better physical health than liberals.

Pixabay
Personal Growth
  • A growing body of research suggests there's some relationship between our measurable personality traits and our political beliefs.
  • A recent study examined the relationship between political beliefs, personal responsibility and overall health.
  • The results suggest that an emphasis on responsibility might explain health differences between liberals and conservatives.
Keep reading Show less