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How to learn a new language while you sleep

Sleep encoding turns out to be a real thing.

nap pod or sleep pod
Laura Li prepares to take a nap in YeloSpa, in New York, on May 1, 2018, where New Yorkers can pay for a cabin to take a nap, and recharge energy without having to return to their homes. (Photo by HECTOR RETAMAL/AFP/Getty Images)
  • While it was believed you cannot learn new information while asleep, a new study in Switzerland makes the case for sleep encoding.
  • 41 native German speakers were introduced to a nonsense word alongside a German word to forge a relationship.
  • When tested while awake, the real word was defined by the nonsense word 10 percent higher than random chance, suggesting a bond was formed while asleep.

On a recent trip to Berlin, I mostly conversed with my taxi driver through Google Translate. His English was much better than my Turkish, but as we began discussing two of the finer things in life—music and cuisine—he wanted to discuss his favorite ney players and direct me to the best kabobs in town. I was grateful, if not a little frightened as he tried to manage the phone while veering around the tight corners of the city.

Turkish was never at the top of my list of languages to learn, though after watching "Ida" a few weeks ago, my wife and I discussed Polish as an option. She speaks numerous languages while I can barely get by in Mexico on my lackluster Spanish. I spent three years in high school studying it, along with dedicating time to Hungarian tapes, but nothing has stuck.

What if I was missing an essential training method, such as… sleeping?

That's what a new study, published in Current Biology, claims. It's not as if playing those tapes will automatically grant you linguistic superpowers. That said, the research is another indicator that we don't necessarily know where the boundaries of consciousness begin and end.

That's because we often treat consciousness like a light: It's on when awake and off when asleep. Untrue. There are many autonomic processes that easily cross that divide—they have to, or else we wouldn't be alive—that inform conscious decision-making. Unconscious activities inform us all the time.

4 useful skills you can actually learn while you sleep

Sleep is essential for good health, but it's also necessary for retaining information. This is why all-night cramming before a test is counterproductive. A restful night's sleep helps us remember much more effectively than skipping out on our slumber. Megan Schmidt writes for Discover:

While we catch Z's, our brains are busy organizing and consolidating the information and events we encountered that day. Important stuff gets filed away, while unimportant stuff gets deleted to make room for new learning.

Researchers at the Decoding Sleep Interfaculty Research Cooperation—those Swiss really know how to name institutions—fed sleepers a fake word to associate with a real one. In one instance, it was tofer and Haus, the German word for "house." These words were played during the peak of slow waves in the sleep cycle, when researchers speculated learning might occur. Alas, they did.

Reactivations of sleep-formed associations were mirrored by brain activation increases measured with fMRI in cortical language areas and the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for relational binding. We infer that implicit relational binding had occurred during peaks of slow oscillations, recruiting a hippocampal-neocortical network comparable to vocabulary learning in the waking state.

The odds were against them. During slow-wave sleep, plasticity-related genes are in short supply; long-term potentiation is limited; acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that supports learning, is also reduced. And yet, given positive results in mice, the researchers recognized that sounds, words, and even tone-odor combinations can be encoded during sleep. A relational binding of vocabulary, such as tofer-Haus, would signify that such an encoding is possible.

The science of sleep

Enter Marc Züst, first co-author:

What we found in our study is that the sleeping brain can actually encode new information and store it for long term. Even more, the sleeping brain is able to make new associations.

Forty-one native German speakers took a nap. The "pseudoword" was presented four times in succession, like a bad horror movie: tofer-Haus, Haus-tofer, tofer-Haus, Haus-tofer. The somnambulist rhythm matched the slow waves experienced while unconscious.

That wasn't the only word pairing, mind you. An average of 36.51 word pairs were repeated 146.05 times over the course of the nap. The idea was that tofer would be related to Haus, so that even though the former word is nonsense, the volunteer would relate it to the real word upon awakening, when they were presented the nonsensical word without priming. It worked.

Researchers found participants were able to correctly classify foreign words at an accuracy rate that was 10 percent higher than random chance, as long as they heard the word at precise times during slow wave sleep. The result suggests that the approach the researchers used causes the brain to form memory traces, or changes in the brain that help us store a memory.

So, if you know that a biktum is a bird, someone might have placed speakers in your bedroom. More importantly, there might be a new training method for learning an actual foreign language. Leave the made-up verbiage to experts, like Sigur Rós and Björk. For a crash course in Polish, press play before hitting the hay.

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Stay in touch with Derek on Twitter and Facebook.

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Image source: carlos castilla/Shutterstock
  • Quantum particles can tunnel through seemingly impassable barriers, popping up on the other side.
  • Quantum tunneling is not a new discovery, but there's a lot that's unknown about it.
  • By super-cooling rubidium particles, researchers use their spinning as a magnetic timer.

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Exactly why or even how quantum tunneling happens is unknown: Do particles just pop over to the other side instantaneously in the same way entangled particles interact? Or do they progressively tunnel through? Previous research has been conflicting.

That quantum tunneling occurs has not been a matter of debate since it was discovered in the 1920s. When IBM famously wrote their name on a nickel substrate using 35 xenon atoms, they used a scanning tunneling microscope to see what they were doing. And tunnel diodes are fast-switching semiconductors that derive their negative resistance from quantum tunneling.

Nonetheless, "Quantum tunneling is one of the most puzzling of quantum phenomena," says Aephraim Steinberg of the Quantum Information Science Program at Canadian Institute for Advanced Research in Toronto to Live Science. Speaking with Scientific American he explains, "It's as though the particle dug a tunnel under the hill and appeared on the other."

Steinberg is a co-author of a study just published in the journal Nature that presents a series of clever experiments that allowed researchers to measure the amount of time it takes tunneling particles to find their way through a barrier. "And it is fantastic that we're now able to actually study it in this way."

Frozen rubidium atoms

Image source: Viktoriia Debopre/Shutterstock/Big Think

One of the difficulties in ascertaining the time it takes for tunneling to occur is knowing precisely when it's begun and when it's finished. The authors of the new study solved this by devising a system based on particles' precession.

Subatomic particles all have magnetic qualities, and they spin, or "precess," like a top when they encounter an external magnetic field. With this in mind, the authors of the study decided to construct a barrier with a magnetic field, causing any particles passing through it to precess as they did so. They wouldn't precess before entering the field or after, so by observing and timing the duration of the particles' precession, the researchers could definitively identify the length of time it took them to tunnel through the barrier.

To construct their barrier, the scientists cooled about 8,000 rubidium atoms to a billionth of a degree above absolute zero. In this state, they form a Bose-Einstein condensate, AKA the fifth-known form of matter. When in this state, atoms slow down and can be clumped together rather than flying around independently at high speeds. (We've written before about a Bose-Einstein experiment in space.)

Using a laser, the researchers pusehd about 2,000 rubidium atoms together in a barrier about 1.3 micrometers thick, endowing it with a pseudo-magnetic field. Compared to a single rubidium atom, this is a very thick wall, comparable to a half a mile deep if you yourself were a foot thick.

With the wall prepared, a second laser nudged individual rubidium atoms toward it. Most of the atoms simply bounced off the barrier, but about 3% of them went right through as hoped. Precise measurement of their precession produced the result: It took them 0.61 milliseconds to get through.

Reactions to the study

Scientists not involved in the research find its results compelling.

"This is a beautiful experiment," according to Igor Litvinyuk of Griffith University in Australia. "Just to do it is a heroic effort." Drew Alton of Augustana University, in South Dakota tells Live Science, "The experiment is a breathtaking technical achievement."

What makes the researchers' results so exceptional is their unambiguity. Says Chad Orzel at Union College in New York, "Their experiment is ingeniously constructed to make it difficult to interpret as anything other than what they say." He calls the research, "one of the best examples you'll see of a thought experiment made real." Litvinyuk agrees: "I see no holes in this."

As for the researchers themselves, enhancements to their experimental apparatus are underway to help them learn more. "We're working on a new measurement where we make the barrier thicker," Steinberg said. In addition, there's also the interesting question of whether or not that 0.61-millisecond trip occurs at a steady rate: "It will be very interesting to see if the atoms' speed is constant or not."

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