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How to learn a new language while you sleep
Sleep encoding turns out to be a real thing.
- While it was believed you cannot learn new information while asleep, a new study in Switzerland makes the case for sleep encoding.
- 41 native German speakers were introduced to a nonsense word alongside a German word to forge a relationship.
- When tested while awake, the real word was defined by the nonsense word 10 percent higher than random chance, suggesting a bond was formed while asleep.
On a recent trip to Berlin, I mostly conversed with my taxi driver through Google Translate. His English was much better than my Turkish, but as we began discussing two of the finer things in life—music and cuisine—he wanted to discuss his favorite ney players and direct me to the best kabobs in town. I was grateful, if not a little frightened as he tried to manage the phone while veering around the tight corners of the city.
Turkish was never at the top of my list of languages to learn, though after watching "Ida" a few weeks ago, my wife and I discussed Polish as an option. She speaks numerous languages while I can barely get by in Mexico on my lackluster Spanish. I spent three years in high school studying it, along with dedicating time to Hungarian tapes, but nothing has stuck.
What if I was missing an essential training method, such as… sleeping?
That's what a new study, published in Current Biology, claims. It's not as if playing those tapes will automatically grant you linguistic superpowers. That said, the research is another indicator that we don't necessarily know where the boundaries of consciousness begin and end.
That's because we often treat consciousness like a light: It's on when awake and off when asleep. Untrue. There are many autonomic processes that easily cross that divide—they have to, or else we wouldn't be alive—that inform conscious decision-making. Unconscious activities inform us all the time.
4 useful skills you can actually learn while you sleep
Sleep is essential for good health, but it's also necessary for retaining information. This is why all-night cramming before a test is counterproductive. A restful night's sleep helps us remember much more effectively than skipping out on our slumber. Megan Schmidt writes for Discover:
While we catch Z's, our brains are busy organizing and consolidating the information and events we encountered that day. Important stuff gets filed away, while unimportant stuff gets deleted to make room for new learning.
Researchers at the Decoding Sleep Interfaculty Research Cooperation—those Swiss really know how to name institutions—fed sleepers a fake word to associate with a real one. In one instance, it was tofer and Haus, the German word for "house." These words were played during the peak of slow waves in the sleep cycle, when researchers speculated learning might occur. Alas, they did.
Reactivations of sleep-formed associations were mirrored by brain activation increases measured with fMRI in cortical language areas and the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for relational binding. We infer that implicit relational binding had occurred during peaks of slow oscillations, recruiting a hippocampal-neocortical network comparable to vocabulary learning in the waking state.
The odds were against them. During slow-wave sleep, plasticity-related genes are in short supply; long-term potentiation is limited; acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that supports learning, is also reduced. And yet, given positive results in mice, the researchers recognized that sounds, words, and even tone-odor combinations can be encoded during sleep. A relational binding of vocabulary, such as tofer-Haus, would signify that such an encoding is possible.
The science of sleep
Enter Marc Züst, first co-author:
What we found in our study is that the sleeping brain can actually encode new information and store it for long term. Even more, the sleeping brain is able to make new associations.
Forty-one native German speakers took a nap. The "pseudoword" was presented four times in succession, like a bad horror movie: tofer-Haus, Haus-tofer, tofer-Haus, Haus-tofer. The somnambulist rhythm matched the slow waves experienced while unconscious.
That wasn't the only word pairing, mind you. An average of 36.51 word pairs were repeated 146.05 times over the course of the nap. The idea was that tofer would be related to Haus, so that even though the former word is nonsense, the volunteer would relate it to the real word upon awakening, when they were presented the nonsensical word without priming. It worked.
Researchers found participants were able to correctly classify foreign words at an accuracy rate that was 10 percent higher than random chance, as long as they heard the word at precise times during slow wave sleep. The result suggests that the approach the researchers used causes the brain to form memory traces, or changes in the brain that help us store a memory.
So, if you know that a biktum is a bird, someone might have placed speakers in your bedroom. More importantly, there might be a new training method for learning an actual foreign language. Leave the made-up verbiage to experts, like Sigur Rós and Björk. For a crash course in Polish, press play before hitting the hay.
- Learn a new language: why is it easier to learn as a child? - Big Think ›
- How Restflix will help you get to sleep - Big Think ›
A Mercury-bound spacecraft's noisy flyby of our home planet.
- There is no sound in space, but if there was, this is what it might sound like passing by Earth.
- A spacecraft bound for Mercury recorded data while swinging around our planet, and that data was converted into sound.
- Yes, in space no one can hear you scream, but this is still some chill stuff.
First off, let's be clear what we mean by "hear" here. (Here, here!)
Sound, as we know it, requires air. What our ears capture is actually oscillating waves of fluctuating air pressure. Cilia, fibers in our ears, respond to these fluctuations by firing off corresponding clusters of tones at different pitches to our brains. This is what we perceive as sound.
All of which is to say, sound requires air, and space is notoriously void of that. So, in terms of human-perceivable sound, it's silent out there. Nonetheless, there can be cyclical events in space — such as oscillating values in streams of captured data — that can be mapped to pitches, and thus made audible.
Image source: European Space Agency
The European Space Agency's BepiColombo spacecraft took off from Kourou, French Guyana on October 20, 2019, on its way to Mercury. To reduce its speed for the proper trajectory to Mercury, BepiColombo executed a "gravity-assist flyby," slinging itself around the Earth before leaving home. Over the course of its 34-minute flyby, its two data recorders captured five data sets that Italy's National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) enhanced and converted into sound waves.
Into and out of Earth's shadow
In April, BepiColombo began its closest approach to Earth, ranging from 256,393 kilometers (159,315 miles) to 129,488 kilometers (80,460 miles) away. The audio above starts as BepiColombo begins to sneak into the Earth's shadow facing away from the sun.
The data was captured by BepiColombo's Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) instrument. Says Carmelo Magnafico of the ISA team, "When the spacecraft enters the shadow and the force of the Sun disappears, we can hear a slight vibration. The solar panels, previously flexed by the Sun, then find a new balance. Upon exiting the shadow, we can hear the effect again."
In addition to making for some cool sounds, the phenomenon allowed the ISA team to confirm just how sensitive their instrument is. "This is an extraordinary situation," says Carmelo. "Since we started the cruise, we have only been in direct sunshine, so we did not have the possibility to check effectively whether our instrument is measuring the variations of the force of the sunlight."
When the craft arrives at Mercury, the ISA will be tasked with studying the planets gravity.
The second clip is derived from data captured by BepiColombo's MPO-MAG magnetometer, AKA MERMAG, as the craft traveled through Earth's magnetosphere, the area surrounding the planet that's determined by the its magnetic field.
BepiColombo eventually entered the hellish mangentosheath, the region battered by cosmic plasma from the sun before the craft passed into the relatively peaceful magentopause that marks the transition between the magnetosphere and Earth's own magnetic field.
MERMAG will map Mercury's magnetosphere, as well as the magnetic state of the planet's interior. As a secondary objective, it will assess the interaction of the solar wind, Mercury's magnetic field, and the planet, analyzing the dynamics of the magnetosphere and its interaction with Mercury.
Recording session over, BepiColombo is now slipping through space silently with its arrival at Mercury planned for 2025.
Water may be far more abundant on the lunar surface than previously thought.
- Scientists have long thought that water exists on the lunar surface, but it wasn't until 2018 that ice was first discovered on the moon.
- A study published Monday used NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy to confirm the presence of molecular water..
- A second study suggests that shadowy regions on the lunar surface may also contain more ice than previously thought.
Credits: NASA/Daniel Rutter<p>Still, it's not as if the moon is dripping wet. The observations suggest that a cubic meter of the lunar surface (in the Clavius crater site, at least) contains water in concentrations of 100 to 412 parts per million. That's roughly equivalent to a 12-ounce bottle of water. In comparison, the same plot of land in the Sahara desert contains about 100 times more water.</p><p>But a second study suggests other parts of the lunar surface also contain water — and potentially lots of it. Also publishing their findings in <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-020-1198-9#_blank" target="_blank">Nature Astronomy</a> on Monday, the researchers used the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to study "cold traps" near the moon's polar regions. These areas of the lunar surface are permanently covered in shadows. In fact, about 0.15 percent of the lunar surface is permanently shadowed, and it's here that water could remain frozen for millions of years.</p><p>Some of these permanently shadowed regions are huge, extending more than a kilometer wide. But others span just 1 cm. These smaller "micro cold traps" are much more abundant than previously thought, and they're spread out across more regions of the lunar surface, according to the new research.</p>
Credit: dottedyeti via AdobeStock<p>Still, the second study didn't confirm that ice is embedded in micro cold traps. But if there is, it would mean that water would be much more accessible to astronauts, considering they wouldn't have to travel into deep, shadowy craters to extract water.</p><p>Greater accessibility to water would not only make it easier for astronauts to get drinking water, but could also enable them to generate rocket fuel and power.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Water is a valuable resource, for both scientific purposes and for use by our explorers," said Jacob Bleacher, chief exploration scientist in the advanced exploration systems division for NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate, in a statement. "If we can use the resources at the Moon, then we can carry less water and more equipment to help enable new scientific discoveries."</p>