from the world's big
Could there be an 'exercise pill' in the future?
What if we could just skip the workout part and take the results in supplement form? Researchers did it… On mice and flies.
- A group of scientists found that boosting the protein Sestrin in mice and flies mimicked the effects of exercise.
- One hypothesis is that the protein activates metabolic pathways that result in certain biological benefits.
- Researchers hope these findings could eventually help scientists combat muscle wasting in humans due to physical limitation.
"I'm so tired, I wish I could just download these miles into my cells," I moaned a few nights ago before reluctantly trotting off into the cold dark for an evening run. Unfortunately, society is not there yet. But science just got a tiny bit closer to letting us pop a pill and calling it a workout according to new research published this month in Nature Communications.
Exercise can be time-consuming, energy-draining, painful, and stressful. It's also considered something of a panacea, offering a wide swath of health benefits. The magic ingredient responsible for the more glamorous results of working out is Sestrin, a natural protein that accumulates in the muscles after exercise. A group of scientists who have been studying the protein recently tested to see how boosting it in mice and flies affects the critters' fitness levels. Their research showed that it pretty much mimicked the effects of exercise.
The researchers needed to encourage some lab flies to workout. They did this by utilizing the insects instinct to climb up and out of a test tube and developed a contraption that worked like a fly "treadmill." One group of flies was bred without the ability to produce Sestrin, the other was not. The flies were trained on the cardio device for three weeks, then matched up on their running and flying abilities.
"Flies can usually run around four to six hours at this point and the normal flies' abilities improved over that period," explained University of Michigan physiology professor Jun Hee Lee to a university health blog. "The flies without Sestrin did not improve with exercise."
Additionally, when the researchers maximized Sestrin levels in the muscles of normal, untrained flies, they found that those flies actually outperformed the trained flies in fitness tests even though they hadn't exercised. Interestingly, the flies with enhanced Sestrin didn't develop any more endurance when they did exercise. It was as if they had already reached their max. But Sestrin can boost more than just endurance levels. When the mice were bred with Sestrin absent from their muscles, they lacked improvement in fat burning that is typically the result of exercise.
"We propose that Sestrin can coordinate these biological activities by turning on or off different metabolic pathways," said Lee, who co-authored the study. "This kind of combined effect is important for producing exercise's effects."
So, about that exercise pill…
Photo Credit: Flickr/e-MagineArt.com
According to Lee, this study demonstrates that Sestrin by itself is able to produce most of the benefits that result from exercise and physical movement. But, sadly, those were just animals. In fact, scientists still are not sure how exactly exercise produces Sestrin in the human body. So, if you're wondering when the Sestrin pill will hit the market for humans, it isn't likely in the near future. But the intriguing results seen on other animals give the green light for researchers to continue exploring the effects that Sestrin has on humans. However, there are some complications involved with producing a Sesterin supplement.
"Sestrins are not small molecules, but we are working to find small molecule modulators of Sestrin," Lee said.
A more pressing concern for the researchers has been how these findings could eventually help scientists combat muscle wasting due to physical limitation. In fact, they have already demonstrated that Sestrin can also help avoid the muscle atrophy that occurs when a muscle is immobilized. They want to find out if their research could lead to a new type of treatment for people who are unable to exercise because of a disability, age, or other physical restrictions.
How to train smarter
For now, it looks like we'll all have to keep exercising the old school way if we want the results. Though it isn't as easy as swallowing a pill, here are some ways that you can get more out of your workout.
- Have a pre-gym cup of joe. Drinking caffeine before working out has been found to enhance the benefits by stimulating your central nervous system.
- Take an herbal supplement. Ashwagandha and Rhodiola are two well-studied herbs found to offer athletic benefits. One study found that people who took an ashwagandha supplement saw significant improvements in their VO2 max, which is considered the best assessment of a person's endurance abilities. Rhodiola has also been shown to have some pretty remarkable effects as a triple-threat analeptic for energy, focus, and vitality. (In fact, the Russians once secretly tested the herb on their Olympic athletes.)
- Try HITT. High-intensity interval training has become a popular gym trend because of its incredible efficiency. It's been found to be one of the most effective exercises for achieving a leaner body.
As for the almighty Sestrin supplement, we can keep dreaming.
Join multiple Tony and Emmy Award-winning actress Judith Light live on Big Think at 2 pm ET on Monday.
Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
Saudi Arabia Plans Futuristic City, "Neom" (Full Promotional Video)<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c646d528d230c1bf66c75422bc4ccf6f"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/N53DzL3_BHA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Frequent shopping for single items adds to our carbon footprint.
- A new study shows e-commerce sites like Amazon leave larger greenhouse gas footprints than retail stores.
- Ordering online from retail stores has an even smaller footprint than going to the store yourself.
- Greening efforts by major e-commerce sites won't curb wasteful consumer habits. Consolidating online orders can make a difference.
A pile of recycled cardboard sits on the ground at Recology's Recycle Central on January 4, 2018 in San Francisco, California.
Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images<p>A large part of the reason is speed. In a competitive market, pure players use the equation, <em>speed + convenience</em>, to drive adoption. This is especially relevant to the "last mile" GHG footprint: the distance between the distribution center and the consumer.</p><p>Interestingly, the smallest GHG footprint occurs when you order directly from a physical store—even smaller than going there yourself. Pure players, such as Amazon, are the greatest offenders. Variables like geographic location matter; the team looked at shopping in the UK, the US, China, and the Netherlands. </p><p>Sadegh Shahmohammadi, a PhD student at the Netherlands' Radboud University and corresponding author of the paper, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/26/tech/greenhouse-gas-emissions-retail/index.html" target="_blank">says</a> the above "pattern holds true in countries where people mostly drive. It really depends on the country and consumer behavior there."</p><p>The researchers write that this year-and-a-half long study pushes back on previous research that claims online shopping to be better in terms of GHG footprints.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"They have, however, compared the GHG emissions per shopping event and did not consider the link between the retail channels and the basket size, which leads to a different conclusion than that of the current study."</p><p>Online retail is where convenience trumps environment: people tend to order one item at a time when shopping on pure player sites, whereas they stock up on multiple items when visiting a store. Consumers will sometimes order a number of separate items over the course of a week rather than making one trip to purchase everything they need. </p><p>While greening efforts by online retailers are important, until a shift in consumer attitude changes, the current carbon footprint will be a hard obstacle to overcome. Amazon is trying to have it both ways—carbon-free and convenience addicted—and the math isn't adding up. If you need to order things, do it online, but try to consolidate your purchases as much as possible.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
Chronic irregular sleep in children was associated with psychotic experiences in adolescence, according to a recent study out of the University of Birmingham's School of Psychology.