from the world's big
The universe is dying, new study confirms
Star production peaked three billion years after the Big Bang.
- Scientists track gamma rays across the universe's extragalactic background to calculate all of the starlight ever produced.
- For 10.8 billion years, star production has been decelerating.
- The research team measured nine years worth of data from the universe's 739 known blazars.
The good news is that scientists believe they've figured out how much starlight the universe has ever produced since the Big Bang. Exciting. The bad news? Well, apparently star production peaked a long, long time ago, and ever since, the universe has been in the process of dying. Only seven new stars are born a year these days. You can keep buying green bananas, though; there's time: We still have many billions of years before the stars that already exist go dark and cold.
In Science, the Fermi-LAT Collaboration published, on November 30, a new inventory and history of the universe's light. So, how much light has the universe produced? 4 × 10⁸⁴ photons. To spell that out, that's 4,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
The lead study author of the study, astrophysicist Marco Ajello, said his team was able to measure the entire amount of starlight ever emitted using the Fermi telescope.
"This has never been done before," he told Clemson University's the Newsstand. "Most of this light is emitted by stars that live in galaxies. Every single star that has existed has contributed to this emission, and we can use it to learn all the details about star formation and evolution and galaxy evolution."
The Fermi team has been measuring nine years worth of data from the universe's 739 known blazars.
This map of the entire sky shows the location of 739 blazars used in the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's measurement. Brighter areas have stronger gamma rays.
Image: NASA/DOE/Fermi LAT Collaboration
What the blazar is a blazar?
As galaxies spin around a supermassive black hole at their center, charged particles circling the event horizon develop strong magnetic fields that further excite the particles, causing them to emit radiation at very high energies. Such galaxies produce a great deal of light at their centers, and they're referred to as "active galactic nuclei" (AGN). Some AGNs seem brighter than others from here on Earth. They're not really — they're just the ones pointed straight at us.
Jets of material shot out of such AGNs are called "blazars." The quasar sound-alike name gets its "Bl" from "BL Lacertae," after the constellation in which the first recorded one, back in 1929, originated. Blazars travel at near light speed, and within them are gamma-ray photons the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is designed to detect.
Artistic rendering of a blazar accelerating protons that produce pions, which produce neutrinos and gamma rays. Image source: IceCube/NASA
Encounters with the EBL
As they travel across space, blazar gamma-ray photons collide with the universe's extragalactic background (EBL), the background radiation produced by star formation. Says Ajello, "Gamma-ray photons traveling through a fog of starlight have a large probability of being absorbed. By measuring how many photons have been absorbed, we were able to measure how thick the fog was, and also measure, as a function of time, how much light there was in the entire range of wavelengths." He adds, "It's like following the rainbow till the end and finding the treasure. That's what we found."
In terms of the blazars, NASA columnist Ethan Seigel writes, "The closest one comes to us from just 200 million years ago; the most distant has its light arriving after a journey of 11.6 billion years: from when the Universe was just 2.2 billion years old."
Artist's conception of a blazar. Image source: JPL
The timeline behind and ahead
The study's Vaidehi Paliya says, "By using blazars at different distances from us, we measured the total starlight at different time periods. We measured the total starlight of each epoch — 1 billion years ago, 2 billion years ago, 6 billion years ago, etc — all the way back to when stars were first formed."
The notion that the universe is "dying" is due to the fact that star production, which is decreasing, is a grand recycler of energy, matter, and elements that "nourish" the universe. Our survival relies, quite literally, on starlight and its generation. As Dieter Hartmann, another author of the study, says: "Without the evolution of stars, we wouldn't have the fundamental elements necessary for the existence of life."
Educators and administrators must build new supports for faculty and student success in a world where the classroom might become virtual in the blink of an eye.
- If you or someone you know is attending school remotely, you are more than likely learning through emergency remote instruction, which is not the same as online learning, write Rich DeMillo and Steve Harmon.
- Education institutions must properly define and understand the difference between a course that is designed from inception to be taught in an online format and a course that has been rapidly converted to be offered to remote students.
- In a future involving more online instruction than any of us ever imagined, it will be crucial to meticulously design factors like learner navigation, interactive recordings, feedback loops, exams and office hours in order to maximize learning potential within the virtual environment.
A leading British space scientist thinks there is life under the ice sheets of Europa.
- A British scientist named Professor Monica Grady recently came out in support of extraterrestrial life on Europa.
- Europa, the sixth largest moon in the solar system, may have favorable conditions for life under its miles of ice.
- The moon is one of Jupiter's 79.
Neil deGrasse Tyson wants to go ice fishing on Europa<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="GLGsRX7e" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="f4790eb8f0515e036b24c4195299df28"> <div id="botr_GLGsRX7e_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/GLGsRX7e-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/GLGsRX7e-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/GLGsRX7e-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div>
Water Vapor Above Europa’s Surface Deteced for First Time<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9c4abc8473e1b89170cc8941beeb1f2d"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/WQ-E1lnSOzc?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
New study shows white dwarf stars create an essential component of life.
- White dwarf stars create carbon atoms in the Milky Way galaxy, shows new study.
- Carbon is an essential component of life.
- White dwarfs make carbon in their hot insides before the stars die.
What Are White Dwarf Stars?<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="7b046e546ce994682b2553a8c978eb32"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/77a1KSxfaR0?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Master negotiator Chris Voss breaks down how to get what you want during negotiations.
- Former FBI negotiator Chris Voss explains how forced empathy is a powerful negotiating tactic.
- The key is starting a sentence with "What" or "How," causing the other person to look at the situation through your eyes.
- What appears to signal weakness is turned into a strength when using this tactic.
3 Tips on Negotiations, with FBI Negotiator Chris Voss | Best of '16 | Big Think<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="b86d518e9f0c9f9d7a7c686e07798152"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/-FLlBchonwM?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>This question forces a response, but—and this is key—the other person has to consider your side of the argument. They have to look at the situation from your perspective if they hope to offer a solution.</p><p>Offering a real-world example, Voss mentions coaching a high-end real estate agent. They were leasing an expensive home in the Hollywood Hills. The first time the negotiators asked the "how" question, the leasing agent relented on a number of terms. A little while later, they asked again. This time, the agent said, "If you want the house you're going to have to do it," signaling that the end of negotiations had been reached. </p><p>Voss says that "how" is not the only word that works. "What" is also a powerful entry into negotiations, such as "What am I supposed to do?" Again, you're forcing the other person to empathize. </p><p>This is a particularly tricky skill during a time when most conversations are online. Nuance is impossible without the immediacy of pantomimes and vocal fluctuations. Whataboutism is too easy an escape. </p>
Aikido Morihei Ueshiba (1883 - 1969, standing, centre left), founder of the Japanese martial art of aikido, demonstrating his art with a follower, at the opening ceremony of the newly-opened aikido headquarters, Hombu Dojo, in Shinjuku, Tokyo, 1967.
(Photo by Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images)<p>Online debates often amount to little more than frustrated individuals pulling out their hair. In his book, "Against Empathy," Yale psychology professor Paul Bloom writes that effective altruists are able to focus on what really matters in everyday life.</p><p>For example, he compares politics to sports. Rooting for your favorite team isn't based in rationality. If you're a Red Sox fan, Yankees stats don't matter. You just want to destroy them. This, he believes, is how most people treat politics. "They don't care about truth because, for them, it's not really about truth."</p><p>Bloom writes that if his son believed our ancestors rode dinosaurs, it would horrify him, but "I can't think of a view that matters less for everyday life." We have to strive for rationality when the stakes are high. When involved in real decision-making processes that will affect their life, people are better able to express ideas and make arguments, and are more receptive to opposing ideas. </p><p>Because we "become inured to problems that seem unrelenting," it's imperative to make the problem seem immediate. As Voss says, giving the other side "the illusion of control" is one way of accomplishing this, as it forces them to take action. When people feel out of control, negotiations are impossible. People dig their heels in and refuse to budge. </p><p>What seems to be weakness is actually a strength. To borrow another martial arts metaphor, negotiations are like aikido: using your opponent's force against them while also protecting them from injury. Forcing empathy is one way to accomplish this task. You may get more than you ask for without the other side ever realizing they surrendered anything.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>