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California researchers develop drug cocktail that reverses aging — results 'remarkably promising'
Scientists find promising results in trial to reverse biological aging.
- Volunteers given a mix of three drugs "aged backwards," shedding 2.5 years off their biological ages.
- The research focused on marks on their DNA and epigenetic clock.
- Scientists need to continue this research with a larger population size for their next trial.
A recent minor clinical study in California suggests that for the first time ever, it may be possible to reverse the body's biological epigenetic clock.
Over the course of a year, nine healthy participants were given a mixture of three common drugs, which included a growth hormone and two diabetes medications. On average, it was found that 2.5 years of their biological ages had been shed after analyzing their genomes. Additionally, their immune systems showed signs of rejuvenation.
The results surprised researchers, but the scientists cautioned that these findings are only preliminary as the trial wasn't large enough and didn't have a control group.
Reversal of biological aging study
Clinical researchers tested the blood samples taken from the trial in order to review the reversed aspects of human aging. The significant reversal in their epigenetic ages was astounding. While they'll need to follow this study with more rigorous and large scale trials in the future, they still remain optimistic that a person's biological age can be reversed.
Their findings were published in the research journal Aging.
The authors stated that,". . . epigenetic age does not measure all features of aging and is not synonymous with aging itself, it is the most accurate measure of biological age and age‐related disease risk available today."
The results of their study put forth preliminary evidence that regression of multiple areas and markers of aging will be one day be possible for humans. The researchers write:
"The present study now establishes highly significant evidence of thymic regeneration in normal aging men accompanied by improvements in a variety of disease risk factors and age‐related immunological parameters."
What is epigenetic age?
The epigenetic clock is based off of the body's epigenome, which is comprised of the chemical modifications that occur and tag DNA, usually found on methyl groups. Patterns of these tags change during your life as you age. Scientists use these markers to track a person's biological age, sometimes they either exceed or fall behind someone's chronological age.
Scientists create epigenetic clocks by selecting certain sets of DNA-methylation site across a person's genomes.
The latest trial was created in order to test whether growth hormone could be safely used to restore human tissue in the thymus gland, this has already successfully been done in trials on dogs and rats.
The thymus gland is located in the chest between your lungs and breastbone. It serves a crucial function for the immune system. White blood cells that are produced in bone marrow mature inside the thymus, where they turn into T cells that help fight infection. This gland begins to gradually shrink after puberty.
Evidence from previous animal trials and some small human studies have suggested that the growth hormone can regenerate the thymus. However, growth hormone can also produce diabetes.
This is why the trial added two anti-diabetic drugs in the reversal aging cocktail, which consisted of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and metformin.
A scientific first that requires further investigation
University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) geneticist, Steve Horvath, one of the researchers involved in the study and a pioneer in the human aging epigenetic research told the journal Nature that he was surprised by the results.
"I'd expected to see slowing down of the clock, but not a reversal. That felt kind of futuristic," he said. "This told me that the biological effect of the treatment was robust." The effect stayed in the participants blood samples some six months after the trial was finished.
The authors wrote, ""Epigenetic 'clocks' can now surpass chronological age in accuracy for estimating biological age. This is to our knowledge the first report of an increase, based on an epigenetic age estimator, in predicted human lifespan by means of a currently accessible aging intervention."
According to the researchers, further studies must be conducted to fully confirm and build on these findings. They've found that as the thymus shrinks in older aged individuals, critical immune cell populations result in the collapse of T-cell receptors (TCR). This connects with and leads to most causes of death in the elderly, which include age-related increases in cancer, lowered immunity to infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders and more.
The study's authors end on a final note that, "Although much more remains to be done. The general prospects for meaningful amelioration of human aging appear to be remarkably promising."
A new study finds that dogs fed fresh human-grade food don't need to eat—or do their business—as much.
- Most dogs eat a diet that's primarily kibble.
- When fed a fresh-food diet, however, they don't need to consume as much.
- Dogs on fresh-food diets have healthier gut biomes.
Four diets were tested<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNTU5ODI1MS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY1NjY0NjIxMn0._w0k-qFOC86AqmtPHJBK_i-9F5oVyVYsYtUrdvfUxWQ/img.jpg?width=980" id="1b1e4" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="87937436a81c700a8ab3b1d763354843" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" data-width="1440" data-height="960" />
Credit: AntonioDiaz/Adobe Stock<p>The researchers tested refrigerated and fresh human-grade foods against kibble, the food most dogs live on. The <a href="https://frontierpets.com.au/blogs/news/how-kibble-or-dry-dog-food-is-made" target="_blank">ingredients</a> of kibble are mashed into a dough and then extruded, forced through a die of some kind into the desired shape — think a <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_extrusion" target="_blank">pasta maker</a>. The resulting pellets are sprayed with additional flavor and color.</p><p>For four weeks, researchers fed 12 beagles one of four diets:</p><ol><li>a extruded diet — Blue Buffalo Chicken and Brown Rice Recipe</li><li>a fresh refrigerated diet — Freshpet Roasted Meals Tender Chicken Recipe</li><li>a fresh diet — JustFoodforDogs Beef & Russet Potato Recipe</li><li>another fresh diet — JustFoodforDogs Chicken & White Rice Recipe.</li></ol><p>The two fresh diets contained minimally processed beef, chicken, broccoli, rice, carrots, and various food chunks in a canine casserole of sorts. </p><p>(One can't help but think how hard it would be to get finicky cats to test new diets. As if.)</p><p>Senior author <a href="https://ansc.illinois.edu/directory/ksswanso" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Kelly S. Swanson</a> of U of I's Department of Animal Sciences and the Division of Nutritional Sciences, was a bit surprised at how much better dogs did on people food than even refrigerated dog chow. "Based on past research we've conducted I'm not surprised with the results when feeding human-grade compared to an extruded dry diet," he <a href="https://aces.illinois.edu/news/feed-fido-fresh-human-grade-dog-food-scoop-less-poop" target="_blank">says</a>, adding, "However, I did not expect to see how well the human-grade fresh food performed, even compared to a fresh commercial processed brand."</p>
Tracking the effect of each diet<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNTU5ODI1OC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY3NjY1NTgyOX0.AdyMb8OEcjCD6iWYnXjToDmcnjfTSn-0-dfG96SIpUA/img.jpg?width=980" id="da892" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="880d952420679aeccd1eaf32b5339810" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" data-width="1440" data-height="960" />
Credit: Patryk Kosmider/Adobe Stock<p>The researchers tracked the dogs' weights and analyzed the microbiota in their fecal matter.</p><p>It turned out that the dogs on kibble had to eat more to maintain their body weight. This resulted in their producing 1.5 to 2.9 times the amount of poop produced by dogs on the fresh diets.</p><p>Says Swanson, "This is consistent with a 2019 National Institute of Health study in humans that found people eating a fresh whole food diet consumed on average 500 less calories per day, and reported being more satisfied, than people eating a more processed diet."</p><p>Maybe even more interesting was the effect of fresh food on the gut biome. Though there remains much we don't yet know about microbiota, it was nonetheless the case that the microbial communities found in fresh-food poo was different.</p><p>"Because a healthy gut means a healthy mutt," says Swanson, "fecal microbial and metabolite profiles are important readouts of diet assessment. As we have shown in <a href="https://academic.oup.com/jas/article/92/9/3781/4702209#110855647" target="_blank">previous studies</a>, the fecal microbial communities of healthy dogs fed fresh diets were different than those fed kibble. These unique microbial profiles were likely due to differences in diet processing, ingredient source, and the concentration and type of dietary fibers, proteins, and fats that are known to influence what is digested by the dog and what reaches the colon for fermentation."</p>
How did kibble take over canine diets?<p>Historically, dogs ate scraps left over by humans. It has only been <a href="https://www.thefarmersdog.com/digest/the-history-of-commercial-pet-food-a-great-american-marketing-story/" target="_blank">since 1870</a>, with the arrival of the luxe Spratt's Meat Fibrine Dog Cakes—made from "the dried unsalted gelatinous parts of Prairie Beef", mmm—that commercial dog food began to take hold. Dog bone-shaped biscuits first appeared in 1907. Ken-L Ration dates from 1922. Kibble was first extruded in 1956. Pet food had become a great way to turn <a href="https://www.dogfoodadvisor.com/choosing-dog-food/animal-by-products/" target="_blank">human-food waste</a> into profit.</p><p>Commercial dog food became the norm for most household canines only after a massive marketing campaign led by a group of dog-food industry lobbyists called the Pet Food Institute in 1964. Over time, for most households, dog food was what dogs ate — what else? Human food? These days more than half of U.S. dogs are <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/03/magazine/who-made-that-dog-biscuit.html" target="_blank">overweight or obese</a>, and certainly their diet is a factor.<span></span></p><p>We're not so special among animals after all. If something's healthy for us to eat—we're <em>not</em> looking at you, chocolate—maybe we should remember to share with our canine compatriots. Not from the table, though.</p>
What makes some people more likely to shiver than others?
Some people just aren't bothered by the cold, no matter how low the temperature dips. And the reason for this may be in a person's genes.
Eating veggies is good for you. Now we can stop debating how much we should eat.
- A massive new study confirms that five servings of fruit and veggies a day can lower the risk of death.
- The maximum benefit is found at two servings of fruit and three of veggies—anything more offers no extra benefit according to the researchers.
- Not all fruits and veggies are equal. Leafy greens are better for you than starchy corn and potatoes.