The Shortest Route Between All the Pubs in the UK
Plotting out the world's longest pub crawl had a serious, mathematical point
From a young age, Frank was fascinated by maps and atlases, and the stories they contained. Finding his birthplace on the map in the endpapers of Tolkien's Lord of the Rings only increased his interest in the mystery and message of maps.
While pursuing a career in journalism, Frank started a blog called Strange Maps, as a repository for the weird and wonderful cartography he found hidden in books, posing as everyday objects and (of course) floating around the Internet.
"Each map tells a story, but the stories told by your standard atlas for school or reference are limited and literal: they show only the most practical side of the world, its geography and its political divisions. Strange Maps aims to collect and comment on maps that do everything but that - maps that show the world from a different angle".
A remit that wide allows for a steady, varied diet of maps: Frank has been writing about strange maps since 2006, published a book on the subject in 2009 and joined Big Think in 2010. Readers send in new material daily, and he keeps bumping in to cartography that is delightfully obscure, amazingly beautiful, shockingly partisan, and more.
From John o' Groats to Land's End (1) – that proverbial phrase covers the entire island of Great Britain. Here is a novel one: from the Bells But & Ben in Yell to the Witchball in The Lizard. That's the northernmost and southernmost pub in Britain, respectively. This map shows the shortest route between both – and every other pub in the UK, all 24,725 of them. That is one massive pub crawl.
But why? Computational mathematics, is why. This monster of a map is a solution to a cartographic conundrum called the Travelling Salesman Problem (2).
Suppose you are a salesman presenting your wares at several locations today. The problem: work out the shortest route between all, taking into account that you need to start from home and arrive back there at the end of the day. For a small number of locations, the solution to that problem usually is self-evident. Add enough locations, and the solution becomes more difficult. Difficult enough for a manual to be published in 1832 called Der Handlungsreisende, proposing a number of routes for salesmen travelling through Germany and Switzerland.
The solutions it proposed were based on experience, but the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) tantalised scientists, who sought to formulate a universal answer. The first to come to grips with the problem was the 19th-century Irish mathematician W.R. Hamilton, who developed the icosian game, the purpose of which is to find a Hamiltonian cycle in a dodecahedron (cf. inf.): a circuit that starts and ends at the same point, and visits all other points only once (3).
Another important TSP theorist was Viennese mathematician Karl Menger, who in the 1930s conceded that
“of course, this problem is solvable by finitely many trials, but rules which would push the number of trials below the number of permutations of the given points are not known. The rule that one first should go from the starting point to the closest point, then to the point closest to this, etc., in general does not yield the shortest route”.
As Menger states, the easiest solution to the TSP is to simply to try all options. But even for a relatively low number of locations, the number of variables is enormous – for just 10 cities there are over 180,000 combinations, for example.
But a systematic solution remains elusive even today, as computers are currently able to calculate solutions for millions of points only to within 2% to 3% of the optimal result (4).
The TSP has many useful applications, from finding the shortest mailman routes to devising the optimal sequence to drill holes in circuit boards, and even calculating the easiest way for Santa to complete his annual one-night tour of all the chimneys in the world. Perhaps the most important consequence of the TSP is that there are no known algorithms to crack the codes on which we rely to keep our data secure.
Finding the shortest route between all pubs in Great Britain may not have figured high on the list of TSP issues to be solved, but solved it now has been, thanks to the Faculty of Mathematics at the University of Waterloo in Canada.
They attacked the TSP by mapping out the shortest-possible walking tour through the pubs of the United Kingdom, or as they so scientifically called the project: UK24727, after the number of pubs (5) involved. Some stats:
This line drawing conveys the route of the tour, which also includes ferry excursions off the British mainland for pub tours in the Hebrides, Orkney and Shetland islands, the isle of Man and Northern Ireland.
The entire map, with a Google Maps markers for each of the pubs, gives the impression that most of Britain is covered by an unbroken canopy of red balloons – darker areas indicating a concentration of balloon ridges, where the greater density of pubs suggests the presence of large cities.
Apart from solving a mathematical problem, the map also has an obvious practical use, for planning your next pub crawl. Attempting the entire route is not recommended, but zoom in to certain areas or the cities listed in the menu on the right, and plot your next excursion.
Like this drinking trip of the Hebrides: arrive by ferry from Oban, slake your thirst at the Am Politician in South Uist, wet your whistle at the Langass Lodge in Loch Eport, polish your pint at Harmersay House in Lochmaddy and get one for the road in the Carlton at Stornoway, before jumping on the ferry back to the mainland at Ullapool (where you can continue indulging at the Ceilidh Place).
Or why not find the watering holes closest to the UK's other two extremities: have a session the Black Cat in Belleek, the westernmost pub in the realm, and take in spirits at the Royal Falcon in Lowestoft, probably the easternmost pub – there are quite a few bunched together in that area, so you might have to visit a few more.
Visit the legendary watering holes of London in the time-saving succession devised by these thirsty mathematicians: make your way from De Hems to the French House via the Golden Lion and then on to... wait, weren't we going in the other direction? Doesn't matter: thanks to this Hamiltonian cycle, we'll end up here again eventually.
Having devised the world’s longest pub crawl, the TSP team at Waterloo University is gearing up for the next challenge: sending their putative salesman on the shortest possible tour past all 49,603 places listed in the U.S. National Register of Historic Places. “This problem is quite a beast”, they admit.
“We currently have a tour of length 350,201,525 meters. That is a little less than the distance to the moon. But we don't know if this is actually the shortest tour. There might possibly be a tour that is 196 meters shorter than our tour. Ouch! Close is just not good enough”.
Find the entire map here. Warning: loads slowly! For more information on the UK pub crawl, and other road-TSP projects covering 120 German cities, 50 U.S. landmarks and others, see the TSP page at the University of Waterloo’s Mathematics Faculty. Many thanks to Joel Winten and Folkard Wohlgemuth for sending in this map.
Strange Maps #818
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(1) John o' Groats, in Scottish Gaelic Taigh Iain Ghròt, is a village of 300 at the northern tip of the Scottish mainland. It is the northernmost inhabited place in Great Britain. Dunnet Head, about fifteen miles (24 km) to the east, is the northernmost place per se. John o' Groats was named after Jan de Groot, a Dutchman who operated a ferry from here to Orkney around the year 1500.
Land's End, in Cornish Penn an Wlas, is a headland and holiday resort at the western tip of Britain (7), on the Penwith peninsula in Cornwall. It is about 33 miles (53 km) east of Lizard Point, Britain's southernmost extremity. The 838 miles (1,349 km) trip between John o' Groats and Land's End is the longest one possible between two inhabited places in Britain.
(2) Or in this case, the Travelling Alesman Problem.
(3) Related to the Seven Bridges of Königsberg problem, proven by Euler to be unsolvable. More on that at #536.
(4) For actual travelling salesmen, not the theoretical ones dreamt up by Hamilton, Menger e.a., the TSP is even more complex, for distance is only one of the variables; the more important ones are time and money: How long does it take to get anywhere, and how much does it cost? For example, is it worth it to take the plane instead of the car to get from A to B and C and back to A again? That depends on whether the value of the time saved outweighs the value of the extra money spent.
(5) Since the exact number of pubs fluctuates due to closures and openings of various establishments, the study was based on the 24,727 pubs as listed in on the Pubs Galore website.
(6) I.c. the route connecting the 200 Tesla superchargers in the United States, a road-TSP problem solved by Mortada Meyhar. Below his map of the Travelling Tesla Salesman.
(7) Actually, the westernmost point of England, but not of Britain. As reader Kevin Jones points out, "the most westerly point of mainland island of Great Britain is Corrachadh Mòr, only 0.5 degree further west than Land's End. If you are ever in Scotland, it is wonderful place to visit, with its views over the islands of the Inner Hebrides. The geology is very interesting, it being a remnant of an igneous complex from the splitting of the North Atlantic about 60 million years ago".
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If you want to know what makes a Canadian lynx a Canadian lynx a team of DNA sequencers has figured that out.
- A team at UMass Amherst recently sequenced the genome of the Canadian lynx.
- It's part of a project intending to sequence the genome of every vertebrate in the world.
- Conservationists interested in the Canadian lynx have a new tool to work with.
If you want to know what makes a Canadian lynx a Canadian lynx, I can now—as of this month—point you directly to the DNA of a Canadian lynx, and say, "That's what makes a lynx a lynx." The genome was sequenced by a team at UMass Amherst, and it's one of 15 animals whose genomes have been sequenced by the Vertebrate Genomes Project, whose stated goal is to sequence the genome of all 66,000 vertebrate species in the world.
Sequencing the genome of a particular species of an animal is important in terms of preserving genetic diversity. Future generations don't necessarily have to worry about our memory of the Canadian Lynx warping the way hearsay warped perception a long time ago.
Artwork: Guillaume le Clerc / Wikimedia Commons
13th-century fantastical depiction of an elephant.
It is easy to see how one can look at 66,000 genomic sequences stored away as being the analogous equivalent of the Svalbard Global Seed Vault. It is a potential tool for future conservationists.
But what are the practicalities of sequencing the genome of a lynx beyond engaging with broad bioethical questions? As the animal's habitat shrinks and Earth warms, the Canadian lynx is demonstrating less genetic diversity. Cross-breeding with bobcats in some portions of the lynx's habitat also represents a challenge to the lynx's genetic makeup. The two themselves are also linked: warming climates could drive Canadian lynxes to cross-breed with bobcats.
John Organ, chief of the U.S. Geological Survey's Cooperative Fish and Wildlife units, said to MassLive that the results of the sequencing "can help us look at land conservation strategies to help maintain lynx on the landscape."
What does DNA have to do with land conservation strategies? Consider the fact that the food found in a landscape, the toxins found in a landscape, or the exposure to drugs can have an impact on genetic activity. That potential change can be transmitted down the generative line. If you know exactly how a lynx's DNA is impacted by something, then the environment they occupy can be fine-tuned to meet the needs of the lynx and any other creature that happens to inhabit that particular portion of the earth.
Given that the Trump administration is considering withdrawing protection for the Canadian lynx, a move that caught scientists by surprise, it is worth having as much information on hand as possible for those who have an interest in preserving the health of this creature—all the way down to the building blocks of a lynx's life.
The exploding popularity of the keto diet puts a less used veggie into the spotlight.
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