Are Supreme Court Justices Too Privileged to Understand Average Americans?
Last month at The New Republic, before that venerable American periodical sadly imploded, Slate’s Dahlia Lithwick wrote an article lamenting that the Supreme Court is increasingly a bastion of elite homogeneity. She wasn’t talking about race or gender: the Court now has three women on the bench (Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Elena Kagan and Sonia Sotomayor), one African American justice (Clarence Thomas) and one Hispanic justice (Sotomayor again). Lithwick’s beef was with the lack of other kinds of diversity on the nation’s highest court:
All nine sitting justices attended either Yale or Harvard law schools...Eight once sat on a federal appellate court; five have done stints as full-time law school professors. There is not a single justice “from the heartland,” as Clarence Thomas has complained. There are no war veterans (like John Paul Stevens), former Cabinet officials (like Robert Jackson), or capital defense attorneys. The Supreme Court that decided Brown v. Board of Education had five members who had served in elected office. The Roberts Court has none. What we have instead are nine perfect judicial thoroughbreds who have spent their entire adulthoods on the same lofty, narrow trajectory.
Writing at The Economist a few days later, I replied to Lithwick’s critique by identifying several recent cases in which certain justices have drawn upon their personal experiences to get inside the shoes of Americans facing particular challenges. These jurists summoned a degree of empathy in preparing deeply considered opinions: Justice Thomas and Justice Sotomayor on affirmative action, Justice Breyer on race in education, Justice Ginsburg on women in the workplace. My post focused on two markers—justices’ race and religion—but did not consider what may be an even more salient feature of their identity for cases involving workers and their employers: socio-economic class.
With their sterling legal credentials and cloistered path to the bench, none of the justices have had much of a chance to live the life of an average American worker. Justice Sotomayor and Justice Thomas both had tough upbringings, but their professional careers have not veered into blue collar territory. None of the justices have spent time working in factories or warehouses or toiling in low-paying jobs.
Ideally, this lack of experience should not matter much. Justices are supposed to give all parties before the Court a fair shake by interpreting the laws and the Constitution with objectivity and without bias. “Equal Justice Under the Law” is engraved right into the Supreme Court building. But one of the first decisions to come from the Court this year, a 9-0 ruling in Integrity Staffing Solutions Inc. v. Busk, seems to turn a blind eye to the reality of the working lives of hundreds of thousands of Americans.
The issue in Busk is simple. In order to catch and deter theft, warehouse workers at a temp agency contracting with Amazon.com were required to submit to searches at the end of every workday. The searches took up to 25 minutes, but workers were asked to punch out before standing in the security line. This means they were asked to spend up to 2½ hours a week at work but off the clock. And we are talking about a lot of people. As Adam Liptak of the New York Times reports, “there have been 13 class-action lawsuits against Amazon and other companies involving more than 400,000 plaintiffs and seeking hundreds of millions of dollars.”
Justice Thomas’s decision for a unanimous Court took a clinical approach. The relevant law, the 1947 Portal-to-Portal Act, says that employers do not have to pay workers for anything they do before or after the actual workday. According to a decision from 1956, this means that employers are responsible for compensating only tasks that are “integral and indispensable” parts of “the principal activities for which covered workmen are employed.” Since the essence of a merchandise picker's job is taking items off of shelves, not being searched, there is no legal obligation for employers to compensate workers for end-of-day searches.
The logic is impeccable, the syllogism sound, until you take a closer look. As Noah Feldman writes at Bloomberg View, “The trouble lies in the logic of defining ‘principal activity’ as though it were some abstract philosophical question about the essence of the warehouse employees’ job.”
In reality, the “principal activity” is the job as defined by the employer. Amazon need not define the job to require security screening, because of course you can work at a warehouse without stealing anything. But once the employer says that the job can only be performed if you get screened, it’s redefining the principal activity from “warehouse work” to “warehouse work including screening.”
Feldman burnishes this point with two examples. Justice Thomas tried to distinguish the Amazon warehouse from a chemical plant, where workers are paid for the time spent donning protective gear before starting work, and from a meatpacking plant, where workers are on the clock while sharpening their knives before beginning butchering. But, as Feldman explains, “[y]ou don’t work at the chemical plant in order to wear protective gear—it’s just necessary if you want to do the job safely.” And “[y]ou can cut meat with a dull knife—but it reduces employer’s profits if you do. An activity included in the job as part of the employer’s profit motive should count as a principal activity.”
The Court’s liberal justices, who show empathy with disadvantaged Americans in other contexts and on other occasions, had little compassion for the Amazon product-pickers. Anyone who has witnessed an oral argument or read through a judicial opinion knows how hard the justices work. (Justice Ginsburg, at 81, apparently pulled an all-nighter earlier this fall, and it wasn’t her first.) Still, the justices get a three-month summer holiday and, when Court is in session, have official responsibilities only 12 days a month—on their busiest month. And it’s safe to say that none of them have had to spend up to 10 hours a month emptying their pockets and walking through security screenings at work. If any of the justices had such an experience under their belt, maybe some would have seen this case differently.
Image credit: Steven Mazie
To create wiser adults, add empathy to the school curriculum.
- Stories are at the heart of learning, writes Cleary Vaughan-Lee, Executive Director for the Global Oneness Project. They have always challenged us to think beyond ourselves, expanding our experience and revealing deep truths.
- Vaughan-Lee explains 6 ways that storytelling can foster empathy and deliver powerful learning experiences.
- Global Oneness Project is a free library of stories—containing short documentaries, photo essays, and essays—that each contain a companion lesson plan and learning activities for students so they can expand their experience of the world.
Philosophers like to present their works as if everything before it was wrong. Sometimes, they even say they have ended the need for more philosophy. So, what happens when somebody realizes they were mistaken?
Sometimes philosophers are wrong and admitting that you could be wrong is a big part of being a real philosopher. While most philosophers make minor adjustments to their arguments to correct for mistakes, others make large shifts in their thinking. Here, we have four philosophers who went back on what they said earlier in often radical ways.
Numerous U.S. Presidents invoked the Insurrection Act to to quell race and labor riots.
- U.S. Presidents have invoked the Insurrection Act on numerous occasions.
- The controversial law gives the President some power to bring in troops to police the American people.
- The Act has been used mainly to restore order following race and labor riots.
It looks like a busy hurricane season ahead. Probably.
- Before the hurricane season even started in 2020, Arthur and Bertha had already blown through, and Cristobal may be brewing right now.
- Weather forecasters see signs of a rough season ahead, with just a couple of reasons why maybe not.
- Where's an El Niño when you need one?
Welcome to Hurricane Season 2020. 2020, of course, scoffs at this calendric event much as it has everything else that's normal — meteorologists have already used up the year's A and B storm names before we even got here. And while early storms don't necessarily mean a bruising season ahead, forecasters expect an active season this year. Maybe storms will blow away the murder hornets and 13-year locusts we had planned.
NOAA expects a busy season
According to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center, an agency of the National Weather Service, there's a 60 percent chance that we're embarking upon a season with more storms than normal. There does, however, remain a 30 percent it'll be normal. Better than usual? Unlikely: Just a 10 percent chance.
Where a normal hurricane season has an average of 12 named storms, 6 of which become hurricanes and 3 of which are major hurricanes, the Climate Prediction Center reckons we're on track for 13 to 29 storms, 6 to 10 of which will become hurricanes, and 3 to 6 of these will be category 3, 4, or 5, packing winds of 111 mph or higher.
What has forecasters concerned are two factors in particular.
This year's El Niño ("Little Boy") looks to be more of a La Niña ("Little Girl"). The two conditions are part of what's called the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, which describes temperature fluctuations between the ocean and atmosphere in the east-central Equatorial Pacific. With an El Niño, waters in the Pacific are unusually warm, whereas a La Niña means unusually cool waters. NOAA says that an El Niño can suppress hurricane formation in the Atlantic, and this year that mitigating effect is unlikely to be present.
Second, current conditions in the Atlantic and Caribbean suggest a fertile hurricane environment:
- The ocean there is warmer than usual.
- There's reduced vertical wind shear.
- Atlantic tropical trade winds are weak.
- There have been strong West African monsoons this year.
Here's NOAA's video laying out their forecast:
ArsTechnica spoke to hurricane scientist Phil Klotzbach, who agrees generally with NOAA, saying, "All in all, signs are certainly pointing towards an active season." Still, he notes a couple of signals that contradict that worrying outlook.
First off, Klotzbach notes that the surest sign of a rough hurricane season is when its earliest storms form in the deep tropics south of 25°N and east of the Lesser Antilles. "When you get storm formations here prior to June 1, it's typically a harbinger of an extremely active season." Fortunately, this year's hurricanes Arthur and Bertha, as well as the maybe-imminent Cristobal, formed outside this region. So there's that.
Second, Klotzbach notes that the correlation between early storm activity and a season's number of storms and intensities, is actually slightly negative. So while statistical connections aren't strongly predictive, there's at least some reason to think these early storms may augur an easy season ahead.
Image source: NOAA
Batten down the hatches early
If 2020's taught us anything, it's how to juggle multiple crises at once, and layering an active hurricane season on top of SARS-CoV-2 — not to mention everything else — poses a special challenge. Warns Treasury Secretary Wilbur Ross, "As Americans focus their attention on a safe and healthy reopening of our country, it remains critically important that we also remember to make the necessary preparations for the upcoming hurricane season." If, as many medical experts expect, we're forced back into quarantine by additional coronavirus waves, the oceanic waves slamming against our shores will best be met by storm preparations put in place in a less last-minute fashion than usual.
Ross adds, "Just as in years past, NOAA experts will stay ahead of developing hurricanes and tropical storms and provide the forecasts and warnings we depend on to stay safe."
Let's hope this, at least, can be counted on in this crazy year.
Got any embarrassing old posts collecting dust on your profile? Facebook wants to help you delete them.