Discount store produce as healthy as counterparts in Whole Foods
Food deserts are a problem. One solution might already exist.
- Fourteen percent of Americans currently live in a food desert with little access to fresh fruits and vegetables.
- A new study in Las Vegas food deserts shows that dollar discount stores offer produce equal in quality to chain grocers.
- While food availability in discount stores is an issue, these stores beat chains in terms of price.
The term "food desert" signifies areas with limited access and resources to healthy food. In general, they are low-income areas located at least one mile away from a grocery store in urban areas and 10 miles in rural regions. These neighborhoods tend to be dominated by fast-food chains, gas stations, and bodegas; processed foodstuffs comprise the majority of available nutrition. According to the USDA, these regions lack "fresh fruit, vegetables, and other healthful food products."
Traditionally, small populations live in actual deserts. Food deserts, however, include 23.5 million Americans, nearly 14 percent of the populace. While the term "desert" was first applied to regions lacking basic amenities in 1973, "food desert" came into usage in the U.K. in 1995. These regions, unsurprisingly, are more susceptible to obesity and other health problems than populations that live close to Whole Foods.
In 2012, actor Wendell Pierce co-founded Sterling Farms in his New Orleans neighborhood specifically to combat food deserts. Watching his city struggle after Hurricane Katrina caused him to consider solutions for his neighbors. It was a heroic effort sorely needed; expansion plans were imminent. Sadly, the store closed after just one year, apparently due to poor execution.
There may be a solution closer to home, however. A recent 2018 study, published in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, claims that food deserts — at least the few studied in Las Vegas — already have at least one solution: dollar discount stores.
Hacking hunger: How to survive in a food desert
While this is not where you'd expect to pick up produce, it turns out that on markers of healthiness and expense, such stores match their bigger (though farther away) rivals. The research team, led by Courtney Coughenour at the School of Community Health Sciences at the University of Nevada, found that dollar stores match competitors in produce quality and beat them in price while scoring lower on availability.
Though not a cure-all by any means, they continue:
"Findings indicate that dollar discount stores may be an existing community asset, and considering them as such may aid in efforts to strengthen the overall food system. Practitioners should consider dollar discount stores when assessing the community food environment and designing and implementing outreach programs, as they may bridge some disparities in access."
For this study, the team identified every grocery store in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, breaking them up into national or regional chains offering a broad selection of foods. They then chose one-quarter of that sample based on geography, resulting in 40 stores. They split up these stores equally based on income quintiles. Using the same method, they picked out 14 dollar discount stores to include in their study.
A woman walks by a Family Dollar store on December 11, 2018 in the Brooklyn borough of New York City. Photo credit: by Spencer Platt / Getty Images
As mentioned, in terms of availability, grocery stores win out. Overall, chains have a bigger selection, while certain foods, such as pears and low-fat ground beef, could not be found at any dollar location. Over half of all discount stories carried no ground beef at all.
Yet when quality was factored in, there was no statistical difference. When it comes to regular food items, grocery stores and discount stores offered similar prices, with dollar stores edging out chains. When it came to the healthiest food options, grocery stores offered better prices. Still, that was only at the extremes, as discount stores priced 84.2 percent of produce and 89.5 percent of non-produce items at "significantly less expensive" prices. As the team concludes,
"The most interesting ﬁndings of this study are that the quality of produce items did not differ between the grocery and dollar discount stores, and that most items were less expensive at the dollar discount stores."
Chalk it up to channel blurring, which is when a store sells unexpected items — a pharmacy offering produce, for example. Or a dollar discount store. Because these are often in communities with Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) funds, letting local residents know they can find healthier food options at such outlets is one means for tackling the food desert issue.
Of course, this is not the only change needed in our food infrastructure. Though Sterling Farms might have vanished, better grocery options in low-income neighborhoods are needed. Until changes are made, we have to work with the system in place, which sometimes requires a mindset shift, or, as the research team notes, blurring the channels.
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It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
Do you have a magnetic compass in your head?
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