Your identity is almost entirely based on unconscious brain processes
It’s not personal awareness but a different mechanism which lends an evolutionary advantage, allowing our species to thrive.
We often think that our deeply held beliefs, opinions, and emotions are the result of a long time spent thinking. We see ourselves as an executive of sorts somewhere inside our own head, pondering, making plans, and coming to decisions. This is what is known as a top-down model of executive control. It isn't only laypeople who think this way, but scientists and scholars, many anyway. This has been the prevailing theory for decades.
Most experts see human consciousness as a combination of two different phenomena. The first is the consciousness we experience from one moment to the next. That's knowing who and where in the world we are. It's also the ability to evaluate things, and calculate opportunities and threats. The second is our thoughts, feelings, impressions, intentions, and memories. So here's the innovation, a 2017 paper published in Frontiers of Psychology says that actually, our thoughts and feelings are developed by unconscious mechanisms behind our logical thoughts.
We don't so much come to conclusions on things as become aware of how we feel. In fact, researchers write that the “contents of consciousness" are completely unrelated to the “experience of consciousness." The contents of consciousness are derived from “non-conscious brain systems." In fact, study authors write that “personal awareness is analogous to the rainbow which accompanies physical processes in the atmosphere but exerts no influence over them."
Researchers compared the experience of consciousness to a rainbow, a natural phenomenon that has no influence on its surrounding environment. Credit: Getty Images.
The authors write that these unconscious systems create the contents of our consciousness through what they call a “continuous self-referential personal narrative." Basically, our thoughts, feelings, and emotions are generated “behind the scenes." These processes are fast and efficient, as they should be. Our survival depends on them.
And what about our own, personal narrative? Researchers say this is the accumulation of what we've learned and the impressions we've had from past experiences. It is also constantly being updated as new experiences influence us. Our personal narrative is important because it allows us to communicate with other humans, understand them, and allows us to bond to and cooperate with them. That can help promote strategies for the common good.
So how did these researchers find this out? They looked at studies on hypnosis, particularly when used to treat neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Such studies have consistently shown that people can change their thoughts, mood, and perceptions, when in highly suggestive states. One particular study found volunteers raised their hand even when they didn't tell their brains to do so, as if it were unintentional. Researchers suggested aliens were making them do so.
What's noteworthy is that they recorded participant brain activity while volunteers were under hypnosis. All this begs the question, How responsible we are for our own behavior, and how much of it is totally out of our conscious control? The two researchers who made this discovery are David Oakley, Emeritus Professor of Psychology at UCL, in England and Peter Halligan, Professor of Neuropsychology at Cardiff University, in Wales.
Our personal narrative helps us understand ourselves and others better. Credit: Getty Images.
So given much of what we thing and feel is outside of our control, how responsible are we for our choices, opinions, or behavior? Oakley and Halligan write in The Conversation that they believe “free will and personal responsibility are notions that have been constructed by society."
Though they may reflect a conventional opinion on how things work, these notions wrongly influence how we conduct ourselves and how society is conducted. But this predisposition toward say free will also helps us talk about ourselves, convey our narrative, form closer bonds with kin, and so help hold society together.
To learn more about the search for consciousness, click here:
Malcolm Gladwell teaches "Get over yourself and get to work" for Big Think Edge.
- Learn to recognize failure and know the big difference between panicking and choking.
- At Big Think Edge, Malcolm Gladwell teaches how to check your inner critic and get clear on what failure is.
- Subscribe to Big Think Edge before we launch on March 30 to get 20% off monthly and annual memberships.
It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
Do you have a magnetic compass in your head?
SMARTER FASTER trademarks owned by The Big Think, Inc. All rights reserved.