from the world's big
The ancient roots of psychotherapy matter now
Cognitive behavioral therapy has the Stoics to thank for inspiring this field.
- Cognitive behavioral therapy, a 20th century invention, points to Greek Stoicism for inspiration.
- Stoicism and CBT share an emphasis on using logic and reasoning to overcome emotional difficulties.
- Knowing how to respond to challenges lies at the foundation of modern psychotherapeutic practices.
Where do thoughts come from? Though we've advanced our understanding of the physiological actions that lead to thinking, "where" they arise from remains uncertain. Freud believed thoughts operate at the level of the unconscious; modern psychology and neuroscience abandoned that idea decades ago. Experiences leave imprints—memories—that serve as blueprints for thought.
The developments of behavior therapy and cognitive therapy in the first half of the twentieth century laid the foundation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), a form of mental health training that aims to disrupt cognitive distortions and behaviors and help regulate emotions. Initially applied to depression, this treatment now includes many other problems, including depression's sometime-kin, anxiety.
While CBT's roots can be traced to various therapists in the nineteen-twenties through the sixties, an emergence of "third wave" CBT kicked off in the eighties. This trend coincided with CBT being used as a catchall to describe a number of modalities, including dialectical behavior therapy, rational emotive therapy, and cognitive processing therapy. Today, CBT generally implies any treatment aimed at improving cognitive and emotional issues.
While a twentieth-century intervention, CBT was presaged in the philosophical school of Stoicism. CBT espouses a rational approach to psychosomatic and emotional malaise, making us recall the words of Socrates and Epicurus, both of whom believed philosophy is therapeutic. In fact, the latter, in Fragments, writes that "the philosopher's school is a doctor's clinic."
Stoicism was founded by Zeno of Citium in the third century BCE. The philosophical foundation sounds Buddhist: don't allow pleasure or pain to motivate your actions; accept each moment as it is; live a virtuous life by treating others fairly; live in accordance with nature. Also of note in this media-dominated age in which loud, unapologetic hypocrites hold office: judge a person by their actions, not their speech. Then you will know who they really are.
Zeno said that in order to flourish (eudaemonia), you must exhibit the will (prohairesis) to not be seduced by sparkly objects or the fear of death. This is accomplished through the acquisition of knowledge combined with an ability to implement the ethical framework that such knowledge demands. Stoicism flourished until Christianity dominated the region in the fourth century CE, though many have argued that CBT represents its modern incarnation.
Donald J Robertson and Trent Codd recently co-author a deep dive on the history of the relationship between Stoicism and CBT in the journal, The Behavior Therapist. The best modern example of Stoicism, they write, can be traced back to theologian Reinhold Niebuhr's 1934 prayer:
"God, give me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change; the courage to change the things I can; and the wisdom to know the difference."
The authors credit psychologist Albert Ellis, founder of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), for inspiring the modern renaissance in Stoicism as well as pointing out its applicability in psychotherapy. Ellis believed that emotional problems are not caused by external events, but rather "our irrational beliefs about such events." This idea was borrowed straight from the pen of Epictetus, the first century CE Stoic philosopher.
Ellis opened the floodgate of Stoicism in his field, though as Codd and Robertson write, psychotherapists tend to read Ellis instead of retrieving the source. Nonetheless, the lineage is clear. Aaron T. Beck, the founder of Cognitive Therapy (and also heavily influenced by Ellis), liked to quote Marcus Aurelius:
"If thou are pained by any external thing, it is not the thing that disturbs thee, but thine own judgment about it. And it is in thy power to wipe out this judgment now."
The School of Athens. (Fresco in Stanza della Segnatura), ca 1510-1511.
Photo by Fine Art Images/Heritage Images/Getty Images
Big picture outlook: We are in control of our emotions. Emotions, as psychology professor Lisa Feldman Barrett writes in How Emotions Are Made, are not reactions but creations inspired by past experiences. This falls in line with Aurelius, whose quote above is not about the suppression of automatic response but rather choosing logic over irrational thinking. Emotions do not arrive from a mystical abyss. We have control in how we act and feel.
This is where logic is applied to psychotherapy: don't simply fall back on old patterns of behavior because you're accustomed to them, especially when you cast yourself as a victim or powerless cog in an uncontrollable process. As Niebur implies, many things are beyond our control. What is not is how we act in the face of adversity.
The Stoics knew that life was not about pleasure. Seeking only good feelings does not lead to freedom from the unpleasant realities of existence. These ancient philosophers preached the development of arete, excellence of character. They utilized the four foundations of Platonic virtue—wisdom, justice, temperance, and fortitude—as the philosophical bedrock in which to build that character. Such development requires self-control. Our brains seek quick dopamine hits that come with instant gratification. The tempered spirit sees the long game and adjusts accordingly.
Modern cognitive therapy techniques align with Stoicism in the understanding that emotions and beliefs are not derived from separate processes. Neuroscience backs this up: emotions are feelings, but what we feel must be translated into concepts. An upset stomach could be due to a break-up, yearning, or spoiled food. How we experience that feeling is not separate from the context that causes it. In each case, we have some amount of control over how we treat the symptom.
This leads us to another ancient practice that has recently experienced a renaissance: mindfulness. Paying continual attention (prosoche) to thoughts and feelings is the foundation of Stoic therapy. By recognizing destructive patterns of thinking the patient has an opportunity to reshape their experience of life.
The quest for this levelheadedness persists today and will likely persist as long as we're alive. We should derive some comfort from the fact that humans have been chasing it for millennia. Maintaining poise and control during challenging times has always been difficult. Knowing that how we act during times of challenge begins in our heads is the key to empowerment.
- Should cognitive behavioral therapy be taught in school? - Big Think ›
- 10 quotes from Meditations to unlock your inner Stoic - Big Think ›
What would it be like to experience the 4th dimension?
Physicists have understood at least theoretically, that there may be higher dimensions, besides our normal three. The first clue came in 1905 when Einstein developed his theory of special relativity. Of course, by dimensions we’re talking about length, width, and height. Generally speaking, when we talk about a fourth dimension, it’s considered space-time. But here, physicists mean a spatial dimension beyond the normal three, not a parallel universe, as such dimensions are mistaken for in popular sci-fi shows.
If machines develop consciousness, or if we manage to give it to them, the human-robot dynamic will forever be different.
- Does AI—and, more specifically, conscious AI—deserve moral rights? In this thought exploration, evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins, ethics and tech professor Joanna Bryson, philosopher and cognitive scientist Susan Schneider, physicist Max Tegmark, philosopher Peter Singer, and bioethicist Glenn Cohen all weigh in on the question of AI rights.
- Given the grave tragedy of slavery throughout human history, philosophers and technologists must answer this question ahead of technological development to avoid humanity creating a slave class of conscious beings.
- One potential safeguard against that? Regulation. Once we define the context in which AI requires rights, the simplest solution may be to not build that thing.
Duke University researchers might have solved a half-century old problem.
- Duke University researchers created a hydrogel that appears to be as strong and flexible as human cartilage.
- The blend of three polymers provides enough flexibility and durability to mimic the knee.
- The next step is to test this hydrogel in sheep; human use can take at least three years.
Duke researchers have developed the first gel-based synthetic cartilage with the strength of the real thing. A quarter-sized disc of the material can withstand the weight of a 100-pound kettlebell without tearing or losing its shape.
Photo: Feichen Yang.<p>That's the word from a team in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at Duke University. Their <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adfm.202003451" target="_blank">new paper</a>, published in the journal,<em> Advanced Functional Materials</em>, details this exciting evolution of this frustrating joint.<br></p><p>Researchers have sought materials strong and versatile enough to repair a knee since at least the seventies. This new hydrogel, comprised of three polymers, might be it. When two of the polymers are stretched, a third keeps the entire structure intact. When pulled 100,000 times, the cartilage held up as well as materials used in bone implants. The team also rubbed the hydrogel against natural cartilage a million times and found it to be as wear-resistant as the real thing. </p><p>The hydrogel has the appearance of Jell-O and is comprised of 60 percent water. Co-author, Feichen Yang, <a href="https://today.duke.edu/2020/06/lab-first-cartilage-mimicking-gel-strong-enough-knees" target="_blank">says</a> this network of polymers is particularly durable: "Only this combination of all three components is both flexible and stiff and therefore strong." </p><p> As with any new material, a lot of testing must be conducted. They don't foresee this hydrogel being implanted into human bodies for at least three years. The next step is to test it out in sheep. </p><p>Still, this is an exciting step forward in the rehabilitation of one of our trickiest joints. Given the potential reward, the wait is worth it. </p><p><span></span>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
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