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Home libraries boost child cognition. These are the best books for every age.
Early reading experiences play an important role in brain development.
- Recent studies have shown that children who grow up with books at home have increased literacy, numeracy, and information communication technology skills in adulthood.
- Bookstores and libraries are great, but according to researchers, early exposure at the parental home matters because "books are an integral part of routines and practices that enhance lifelong cognitive competencies."
- While age doesn't necessarily dictate reading level, here are titles suitable for children from a few months old up to 17 years.
When you're making small talk with friends old and new, they typically ask questions that involve your reading habits. People are often curious about the last book you read, what you're currently reading, and what titles are waiting in a neat little stack in your living room. Rarely does anyone ask what the first book you remember loving was, or what books from your childhood had the biggest impact on you, but it turns out that those early reading experiences are just as (if not more) important when it comes to your brain's development.
According to a 2018 study that involved 160,000 people, growing up with a home library of 80-350 books (the average in the U.S. is 114) results in adults with significantly higher levels of literacy, numeracy, and information communication technology (ICT) skills. Studies have also shown that reading increases white matter in the brain (boosting system-wide communication), and children who are read to regularly are less likely to be hyperactive and disruptive.
Libraries and publishers often give the option to sort books by age range, but not everyone progresses at the same pace. Those guidelines, and the distinctions made in this article, are generalizations and are meant to be flexible. That being said, here are some popular, best-selling, and well-reviewed books for the young reader on your shopping list.
Written and illustrated by John Stepsoe, this board book tells the story of a baby who wants nothing more than to play with his big brother.
"This is Baby" is Jimmy Fallon's third children's book. With illustrations of diverse babies by Miguel Ordóñez, it helps teach your little one how to find various body parts from their head to their toes.
The earlier children are exposed to a new language, the better. This bilingual board book, written by Karen Beaumont and illustrated by David Catrow, is a story of positive self-esteem that the Amazon synopsis says is "high on energy and imagination." Fatherly.com recently listed it among their top 16 books for two-year-olds.
A timeless classic by Maurice Sendak that most of us read growing up. If you don't own this one, now may be the time to add it to the collection.
The book that inspired an Oscar-winning animated short, "Hair Love" is written by Matthew Cherry and illustrated by Vashti Harrison. It tells the story of a father who has to learn a difficult new skill: how to style his young daughter's long and curly hair.
Dr. Seuss books are great for their re-readability, rhyme schemes, and unique art style. Children are looking for books that they can grab and read alone or with a parent at this age, so having this collection of five will give them some variety.
We would absolutely recommend the cartoon if we could, but "The Magic School Bus" as a book series is also really fun for children. This particular book touches on a subject that we especially love: space exploration.
The number one best seller in Amazon's "Children's Mystery and Detective Comics & Graphic Novels" section, this Dan Pilkey book is the fourth in the series, which you should consider collecting so that your 3rd grader can experience it all.
Another classic novel that most readers are probably familiar with (and one that comes with various adaptations), "Charlie and the Chocolate Factory" was written by Roald Dahl and first published in 1964. A cool bonus exercise could be reading the book then watching the 1971 film starring Gene Wilder to see how they compare and contrast.
The beauty of buying the full Harry Potter set is that your child can grow along with the characters. The books get progressively longer and there are some pretty mature themes in the later installments, but your pre-teen will have time to build up to those.
Learning about history and politics is a lot more fun and engaging for children when it's in the form of graphic nonfiction. This biography of Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg is written by Debbie Levy and illustrated by Whitney Gardner.
Written by Kelly Barnhill, this fantasy story focuses on a girl named Luna who is raised by a witch and accidentally given magic powers, which she must learn to control. In a review for The New York Times, Diana Wagman wrote that the book "educates about oppression, blind allegiance and challenging the status quo while immersing the reader in an exhilarating story full of magical creatures and derring-do."
The subject matter in Mildred D. Taylor's "Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry" is by no means light and whimsical, so you'll want to consider whether or not your 7th grader is ready for it. Set in Mississippi in the 1930s, the book deals with racism, social injustice, and violence, but also family, love, and perseverance.
Katharine McGee's novel tells the story of an alternate America where there is a wealthy, drama-filled royal family. If your teenager is into celebrity culture and all that comes with it, then they should give this a read.
This YA fantasy novel is the first in a trilogy written by Shelby Mahurin. There are witches, witch hunters, forbidden love, and humor to be had in the 528 pages of the book, which debuted at number two on the NY Times bestseller list and was chosen as Barnes and Noble's YA Book Club selection in 2019.
Described as a disturbing tale of a dystopian world where men rule and women have no civil rights, this 1985 book has gained popularity in recent years thanks to the hit television show of the same name. Author Margaret Atwood served as a consulting producer on the show, which means a lot of this multiple award-winning book's power has been translated onto the screen.
Emily M. Danforth's coming-of-age novel from 2012 is about a young girl in Montana who, upon discovering her homosexuality, is sent to a conversion camp by her conservative guardians. While the character in the book is younger (12 years old), parents and kids seem to agree that the mature themes are best appreciated by slightly older readers.
So much for rest in peace.
- Australian scientists found that bodies kept moving for 17 months after being pronounced dead.
- Researchers used photography capture technology in 30-minute intervals every day to capture the movement.
- This study could help better identify time of death.
We're learning more new things about death everyday. Much has been said and theorized about the great divide between life and the Great Beyond. While everyone and every culture has their own philosophies and unique ideas on the subject, we're beginning to learn a lot of new scientific facts about the deceased corporeal form.
An Australian scientist has found that human bodies move for more than a year after being pronounced dead. These findings could have implications for fields as diverse as pathology to criminology.
Dead bodies keep moving
Researcher Alyson Wilson studied and photographed the movements of corpses over a 17 month timeframe. She recently told Agence France Presse about the shocking details of her discovery.
Reportedly, she and her team focused a camera for 17 months at the Australian Facility for Taphonomic Experimental Research (AFTER), taking images of a corpse every 30 minutes during the day. For the entire 17 month duration, the corpse continually moved.
"What we found was that the arms were significantly moving, so that arms that started off down beside the body ended up out to the side of the body," Wilson said.
The researchers mostly expected some kind of movement during the very early stages of decomposition, but Wilson further explained that their continual movement completely surprised the team:
"We think the movements relate to the process of decomposition, as the body mummifies and the ligaments dry out."
During one of the studies, arms that had been next to the body eventually ended up akimbo on their side.
The team's subject was one of the bodies stored at the "body farm," which sits on the outskirts of Sydney. (Wilson took a flight every month to check in on the cadaver.)Her findings were recently published in the journal, Forensic Science International: Synergy.
Implications of the study
The researchers believe that understanding these after death movements and decomposition rate could help better estimate the time of death. Police for example could benefit from this as they'd be able to give a timeframe to missing persons and link that up with an unidentified corpse. According to the team:
"Understanding decomposition rates for a human donor in the Australian environment is important for police, forensic anthropologists, and pathologists for the estimation of PMI to assist with the identification of unknown victims, as well as the investigation of criminal activity."
While scientists haven't found any evidence of necromancy. . . the discovery remains a curious new understanding about what happens with the body after we die.
Tiny specks of space debris can move faster than bullets and cause way more damage. Cleaning it up is imperative.
- NASA estimates that more than 500,000 pieces of space trash larger than a marble are currently in orbit. Estimates exceed 128 million pieces when factoring in smaller pieces from collisions. At 17,500 MPH, even a paint chip can cause serious damage.
- To prevent this untrackable space debris from taking out satellites and putting astronauts in danger, scientists have been working on ways to retrieve large objects before they collide and create more problems.
- The team at Clearspace, in collaboration with the European Space Agency, is on a mission to capture one such object using an autonomous spacecraft with claw-like arms. It's an expensive and very tricky mission, but one that could have a major impact on the future of space exploration.
This is the first episode of Just Might Work, an original series by Freethink, focused on surprising solutions to our biggest problems.
Catch more Just Might Work episodes on their channel: https://www.freethink.com/shows/just-might-work
Metal-like materials have been discovered in a very strange place.
- Bristle worms are odd-looking, spiky, segmented worms with super-strong jaws.
- Researchers have discovered that the jaws contain metal.
- It appears that biological processes could one day be used to manufacture metals.
The bristle worm, also known as polychaetes, has been around for an estimated 500 million years. Scientists believe that the super-resilient species has survived five mass extinctions, and there are some 10,000 species of them.
Be glad if you haven't encountered a bristle worm. Getting stung by one is an extremely itchy affair, as people who own saltwater aquariums can tell you after they've accidentally touched a bristle worm that hitchhiked into a tank aboard a live rock.
Bristle worms are typically one to six inches long when found in a tank, but capable of growing up to 24 inches long. All polychaetes have a segmented body, with each segment possessing a pair of legs, or parapodia, with tiny bristles. ("Polychaeate" is Greek for "much hair.") The parapodia and its bristles can shoot outward to snag prey, which is then transferred to a bristle worm's eversible mouth.
The jaws of one bristle worm — Platynereis dumerilii — are super-tough, virtually unbreakable. It turns out, according to a new study from researchers at the Technical University of Vienna, this strength is due to metal atoms.
Metals, not minerals
Fireworm, a type of bristle wormCredit: prilfish / Flickr
This is pretty unusual. The study's senior author Christian Hellmich explains: "The materials that vertebrates are made of are well researched. Bones, for example, are very hierarchically structured: There are organic and mineral parts, tiny structures are combined to form larger structures, which in turn form even larger structures."
The bristle worm jaw, by contrast, replaces the minerals from which other creatures' bones are built with atoms of magnesium and zinc arranged in a super-strong structure. It's this structure that is key. "On its own," he says, "the fact that there are metal atoms in the bristle worm jaw does not explain its excellent material properties."
Just deformable enough
Credit: by-studio / Adobe Stock
What makes conventional metal so strong is not just its atoms but the interactions between the atoms and the ways in which they slide against each other. The sliding allows for a small amount of elastoplastic deformation when pressure is applied, endowing metals with just enough malleability not to break, crack, or shatter.
Co-author Florian Raible of Max Perutz Labs surmises, "The construction principle that has made bristle worm jaws so successful apparently originated about 500 million years ago."
Raible explains, "The metal ions are incorporated directly into the protein chains and then ensure that different protein chains are held together." This leads to the creation of three-dimensional shapes the bristle worm can pack together into a structure that's just malleable enough to withstand a significant amount of force.
"It is precisely this combination," says the study's lead author Luis Zelaya-Lainez, "of high strength and deformability that is normally characteristic of metals.
So the bristle worm jaw is both metal-like and yet not. As Zelaya-Lainez puts it, "Here we are dealing with a completely different material, but interestingly, the metal atoms still provide strength and deformability there, just like in a piece of metal."
Observing the creation of a metal-like material from biological processes is a bit of a surprise and may suggest new approaches to materials development. "Biology could serve as inspiration here," says Hellmich, "for completely new kinds of materials. Perhaps it is even possible to produce high-performance materials in a biological way — much more efficiently and environmentally friendly than we manage today."