Immigrant entrepreneurs and the American economy

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\nThe people in the picture may look like doctors, but they're actually two small business entrepreneurs from Queens making traditional Colombian flatbreads known as arepas. If you've ever spent any amount of time in the outer boroughs of New York City, then you know the city is positively teeming with these small mom-and-pop type stores run by thrifty, hard-working immigrant families. (To a lesser degree, these immigrant-run businesses exist in Manhattan, but it's much harder to do business next to a bunch of chain restaurants and big-box retailers). Anyway, the New York Times shines the spotlight on these immigrant-run businesses, calling them "entrepreneurial spark plugs" for the economy:


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As the flow of immigrants to suburban and small-town America\noutpaces the growth of bustling ethnic centers in New York, many\nforeign-born entrepreneurs... are facing an unfamiliar\ncrossroads. In the city, rising rents and density hamper growth, while\nswelling ethnic enclaves in the suburbs generate competitors. Yet in\nother places, opportunity beckons as never before, as immigrants expand\nthe tastes of mainstream America.

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Whether these businesses\nexploit the new chances to break out or succumb to the new perils, the\ncity’s economy will feel the effects. "Immigrants have been the\nentrepreneurial spark plugs of cities from New York to Los Angeles,"\nsaid Jonathan Bowles, the director of the Center for an Urban Future, a\nprivate, nonprofit research organization that has studied the dynamics\nof immigrant businesses that turned decaying neighborhoods into vibrant\ncommercial hubs in recent decades. "These are precious and important\neconomic generators for New York City, and there’s a risk that we might\nlose them over the next decade."

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What's amazing is that the city doesn't do more to encourage these businesses. As the article points out, these businesses tend to get caught up with language barriers, bureaucratic nightmares, and credit problems.

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Which sounds a lot like the state of innovation in many companies today. The people doing the innovating on the "edges" of the corporation are needlessly bogged down with bureaucratic nightmares and hoops to jump through. Yet, it is exactly this type of raw innovation that needs to be nurtured, protected and given an outlet to grow.

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[image: Immigrant Entrepreneurs]

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New fossils suggest human ancestors evolved in Europe, not Africa

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Homo sapiens have been on earth for 200,000 years — give or take a few ten-thousand-year stretches. Much of that time is shrouded in the fog of prehistory. What we do know has been pieced together by deciphering the fossil record through the principles of evolutionary theory. Yet new discoveries contain the potential to refashion that knowledge and lead scientists to new, previously unconsidered conclusions.

A set of 8-million-year-old teeth may have done just that. Researchers recently inspected the upper and lower jaw of an ancient European ape. Their conclusions suggest that humanity's forebearers may have arisen in Europe before migrating to Africa, potentially upending a scientific consensus that has stood since Darwin's day.

Rethinking humanity's origin story

The frontispiece of Thomas Huxley's Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature (1863) sketched by natural history artist Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins. (Photo: Wikimedia Commons)

As reported in New Scientist, the 8- to 9-million-year-old hominin jaw bones were found at Nikiti, northern Greece, in the '90s. Scientists originally pegged the chompers as belonging to a member of Ouranopithecus, an genus of extinct Eurasian ape.

David Begun, an anthropologist at the University of Toronto, and his team recently reexamined the jaw bones. They argue that the original identification was incorrect. Based on the fossil's hominin-like canines and premolar roots, they identify that the ape belongs to a previously unknown proto-hominin.

The researchers hypothesize that these proto-hominins were the evolutionary ancestors of another European great ape Graecopithecus, which the same team tentatively identified as an early hominin in 2017. Graecopithecus lived in south-east Europe 7.2 million years ago. If the premise is correct, these hominins would have migrated to Africa 7 million years ago, after undergoing much of their evolutionary development in Europe.

Begun points out that south-east Europe was once occupied by the ancestors of animals like the giraffe and rhino, too. "It's widely agreed that this was the found fauna of most of what we see in Africa today," he told New Scientists. "If the antelopes and giraffes could get into Africa 7 million years ago, why not the apes?"

He recently outlined this idea at a conference of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

It's worth noting that Begun has made similar hypotheses before. Writing for the Journal of Human Evolution in 2002, Begun and Elmar Heizmann of the Natural history Museum of Stuttgart discussed a great ape fossil found in Germany that they argued could be the ancestor (broadly speaking) of all living great apes and humans.

"Found in Germany 20 years ago, this specimen is about 16.5 million years old, some 1.5 million years older than similar species from East Africa," Begun said in a statement then. "It suggests that the great ape and human lineage first appeared in Eurasia and not Africa."

Migrating out of Africa

In the Descent of Man, Charles Darwin proposed that hominins descended out of Africa. Considering the relatively few fossils available at the time, it is a testament to Darwin's astuteness that his hypothesis remains the leading theory.

Since Darwin's time, we have unearthed many more fossils and discovered new evidence in genetics. As such, our African-origin story has undergone many updates and revisions since 1871. Today, it has splintered into two theories: the "out of Africa" theory and the "multi-regional" theory.

The out of Africa theory suggests that the cradle of all humanity was Africa. Homo sapiens evolved exclusively and recently on that continent. At some point in prehistory, our ancestors migrated from Africa to Eurasia and replaced other subspecies of the genus Homo, such as Neanderthals. This is the dominant theory among scientists, and current evidence seems to support it best — though, say that in some circles and be prepared for a late-night debate that goes well past last call.

The multi-regional theory suggests that humans evolved in parallel across various regions. According to this model, the hominins Homo erectus left Africa to settle across Eurasia and (maybe) Australia. These disparate populations eventually evolved into modern humans thanks to a helping dollop of gene flow.

Of course, there are the broad strokes of very nuanced models, and we're leaving a lot of discussion out. There is, for example, a debate as to whether African Homo erectus fossils should be considered alongside Asian ones or should be labeled as a different subspecies, Homo ergaster.

Proponents of the out-of-Africa model aren't sure whether non-African humans descended from a single migration out of Africa or at least two major waves of migration followed by a lot of interbreeding.

Did we head east or south of Eden?

Not all anthropologists agree with Begun and his team's conclusions. As noted by New Scientist, it is possible that the Nikiti ape is not related to hominins at all. It may have evolved similar features independently, developing teeth to eat similar foods or chew in a similar manner as early hominins.

Ultimately, Nikiti ape alone doesn't offer enough evidence to upend the out of Africa model, which is supported by a more robust fossil record and DNA evidence. But additional evidence may be uncovered to lend further credence to Begun's hypothesis or lead us to yet unconsidered ideas about humanity's evolution.