Was Confucius a "Genius"?

BEIJING - There are probably as many definitions of 'genius' as there are vain, successful people. Yet, not everyone who is vain and successful is a genius; in fact, many geniuses are quite unsuccessful. There exists, luckily, a reliable, philosophical tradition in Europe about what constitutes genius: It is not a person but a certain way of perceiving the world. Let's see if Confucius meets our criteria.


In his Konfuzius – Gespräche (1919), Richard Wilhelm translated shengren on two occasions as “Genie”; and, again, in the 1974 edition. It is an unusual translation that looked more like a compliment than a true synonym.

In European culture, according to historian Paul W. Bruno, genius is not necessary a person, but a spiritual guardian, or, as Immanuel Kant once said: a “GENIUS can also be explicated as the ability to [exhibit] aesthetic ideas”. In particular, a genius has taste (or is guided by it, either way), and to have taste is linguistically linked to Latin sapere (to taste, to have taste, to be wise). Semantically, then, genius is somehow related to sapientia and thus sagacity. An interesting association, but is Wilhelm’s “Genie” a good (albeit a one-time) translation or title for [Confucius] the shengren?

READ MORE What is the Difference between a Sage and a Philosopher?

To render the shengren as “Genie” seemed more like the advancement into sociology, because, technically, the concept of genius in the Western hemisphere had always been revolved around Anschauung (perception), in this case: how someone sees the world.

Compare the two following quotes from The Book of Mencius and Arthur Schopenhauer's The World as Will and Imaginations, which are very similar:

"The man who is truly great is one who does not lose his child’s heart." --Mengzi

"Really every child is to a certain extent a genius, and every genius to a certain extent a child." --Schopenhauer

The bright or clever child is curious and open-minded, and more importantly – unprejudiced. The mind of the bright child slowly diminished over the years, however, and, in the majority of people, extinguished, says Schopenhauer, during their “age of manhood, the Philistines incarnate.”

If someone were able to keep one’s childlike innocence; that one would truly be a very special, unique person: a genius. Genius was an evaluation and thus not an acceptable rendering of the word shengren, in the same way that genius was not an acceptable translation for names like poet, a writer, or a philosopher either.

READ MORE The Resurrection of Non-Western Civilizations

But since genius was related to perception of the world, it clearly separated those with abstract knowledge (the mere scholarly, talented) from the few with intuitive wisdom (the spiritual, visionary). Here's another quote from Schopenhauer:

"Actually all truth and all wisdom ultimately lie in perception; but unfortunately perception cannot be either retained or communicated. [...] it rests just as much on subjective conditions that are not at everyone’s disposal and not at anyone’s at all times... [...] That books do not take the place of experience, and that learning is no substitute for genius, are two kindred phenomena."

This perception of the genius who sees a different world than all the others was not explicitly discussed in the Confucian canon, although it could always be induced, of course as in the above Mencius quote. In Confucianism, intuitive wisdom was a deeper understanding of the hidden mechanics of the world through the process of self-cultivation and guidance by rituals and moral conduct.

In Chinese genius is called tiancai -a person of extraordinary ability. In Latin, the word genius derived from ‘gen’, meaning to be born or to beget: “Genius functions as an attendant to one’s actions,” said Paul Bruno in his study of Kant's concept of genius. That would pose the question if the sages were born that way, or if sagehood made them that way. Confucius surely was attended by genius. But, really, he was a shengren.

Image credit: XiXinXing/Shutterstock.com

This is a condensed version of a chapter on 'Das Genie (Genius)' from the manuscript Shengren.

To keep up to date with this blog you can follow me on TwitterRSS, my Website, or my other Blog.

A dark matter hurricane is crashing into Earth

Giving our solar system a "slap in the face."

Surprising Science
  • A stream of galactic debris is hurtling at us, pulling dark matter along with it
  • It's traveling so quickly it's been described as a hurricane of dark matter
  • Scientists are excited to set their particle detectors at the onslffaught
Keep reading Show less

We are heading for a New Cretaceous, not for a new normal

The climate change we're witnessing is more dramatic than we might think.

Image credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center from Greenbelt, MD, USA
Surprising Science

A lazy buzz phrase – 'Is this the new normal?' – has been doing the rounds as extreme climate events have been piling up over the past year. To which the riposte should be: it's worse than that – we're on the road to even more frequent, more extreme events than we saw this year.

Keep reading Show less

New study reveals what time we burn the most calories

Once again, our circadian rhythm points the way.

Photo: Victor Freitas / Unsplash
Surprising Science
  • Seven individuals were locked inside a windowless, internetless room for 37 days.
  • While at rest, they burned 130 more calories at 5 p.m. than at 5 a.m.
  • Morning time again shown not to be the best time to eat.
Keep reading Show less