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Top 5 most controversial figures in American history
Who were the most divisive Americans?
- Many of the most polarizing Americans were presidents.
- Being controversial created complicated legacies.
- Pop culture can also cause strong division.
Controversy is not always bad for you. Case in point, most of the people on this list are well-known political figures who have made a strong imprint on the country's life. While President Trump is certainly a divisive figure to many, the full extent of his impact on America is yet to materialize. And as incendiary as some of his tweets might be, he's definitely not the first leader to act on opinions that exploit and exacerbate major ideological rifts. Here are 5 people who courted controversies that are still affecting the United States of today.
5. George W. Bush
President George W. Bush Addresses Nation On 9/11 Anniversary. 2006.
Photo by Roger L. Wollenberg-Pool/Getty Images
If you judge by Wikipedia, the former U.S. President George W. Bush is undoubtedly the most controversial person in the history of the country. While 2019 stats are not available, the community encyclopedia reports that Bush's page is edited almost twice as often as any other page on the site.
Why is "W" such a magnet for revisionary thinking? While he has become to some an almost beloved figure after leaving the office, in part thanks to taking up painting, his tenure as the 43rd President was very polarizing. Gallup reports that over his two terms Bush's average approval gap from Republicans to Democrats was 61 points. This means that generally 61% more Republicans were supportive of what he was doing than Democrats. In the period from 2004 until 2005, this gap was even worse, at 76%, with only 15% of Democrats (against 91% of Republicans) approving of Bush's decisions, like going to war in Iraq.
Besides getting the U.S. involved in costly and largely unwinnable wars that have crippled its own economy, other decisions made by George W. Bush that have been dogged by protests and argument include establishing the special prison for suspected terrorists at Guantanamo Bay and his administration's poor response to 2005's Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans.
4. Barack Obama
President Obama Delivers Remarks On Executive Action Immigration Reform. 2014.
Photo by Jim Bourg-Pool/Getty Images
The president who followed "W" into the Oval Office was perhaps an even more divisive figure. Barack Obama's decisions and background contributed to an ever-growing partisan approval gap, pointing to the expanding division in the country. Obama had a 65% difference between positive job ratings from Democrats (88%) and Republicans (23%) during his first year in office.
What was so controversial about President Obama? The first African-American president had to contend with deeply entrenched racism, a growing economic inequality in the country, and a Republican Congress that would not compromise on almost anything. Obama's support for an overhaul of the country's healthcare system, dubbed Obamacare, was another lightning rod that made him a target of constant attacks.
President Trump, of course, who is still fond of criticizing Obamacare, has already surpassed Obama partisan approval gaps in his tenure, "achieving" a 79% difference between Republican and Democratic support – a fact that underscores the continuing growth of polarization within the country.
3. Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson performs during halftime at Super Bowl XXVII. 1993.
Credit: Mike Powell /Allsport
You might wonder how the late singer Michael Jackson makes it to this list but quantifiable proof exists of his continually controversial status. Over 15 years, Jackson's Wikipedia entry has been edited less than George W. Bush's but more than those for Jesus and Obama – a testament to the cultural power of pop stardom.
Called the King of Pop, Jackson was undoubtedly the world's most famous entertainer during the 1980s and 1990s and his legacy still draws worldwide examination. Just recently, the documentary "Leaving Neverland" premiered during the 2019 Sundance Film Festival. This HBO film makes the case that Jackson was a sexual abuser of children.
2. Andrew Jackson
Portrait by Ralph E.W. Earl. 1837.
Serving as president from 1829 until 1837, Andrew Jackson was seen by his detractors as a dangerous demagogue and a man who did not respect the system of checks and balances mandated by the Constitution. He was also infamous for his decisive role in the deaths of thousands of Native Americans who were forced into horrific mass migrations during his term.
Removal of Native Americans was Jackson's top legislative priority and resulted in such acts as the relocation of the Cherokee Nation in 1838, called the Trail of Tears. Four-thousand Cherokees died during the journey. Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole people were also moved under duress, accompanied by state and local militias away from their traditional lands. On the way they encountered disease, starvation, and exposure to the elements.
Known first as a war hero, Jackson portrayed himself as a fighter against a "corrupt aristocracy". He was also an owner of hundreds of slaves and a duelist – a fact that added to his reputation for violence.
Map of United States Indian Removal. 1830–1838.
1. Richard Nixon
President Richard Nixon meets with Elvis Presley. 1970.
Photo by National Archive/Newsmakers
No list of this kind would be complete without Richard Nixon, who was President of the U.S. from 1969 until 1974. Nixon's Watergate Scandal has become the golden standard of American political scandals and is likely to forever plague the legacy of the 37th President. Nixon's associates were discovered to have broken into Democratic campaign headquarters during the 1972 Presidential race, setting off a chain of coverups that ended up in Nixon's resignation from his job – the only time so far this has happened in American history.
Even before Watergate, Nixon wasn't really a universally beloved leader. His paranoid personal style resulted in numerous abuses of power, including using the FBI to wiretap 17 government officials and journalists. This has overshadowed some of the achievements of his administration, like the creation of the EPA and passage of the Endangered Species Act as well as the Clean Air Act.
Join The Daily Show comedian Jordan Klepper and elite improviser Bob Kulhan live at 1 pm ET on Tuesday, July 14!
The team caught a glimpse of a process that takes 18,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years.
- In Italy, a team of scientists is using a highly sophisticated detector to hunt for dark matter.
- The team observed an ultra-rare particle interaction that reveals the half-life of a xenon-124 atom to be 18 sextillion years.
- The half-life of a process is how long it takes for half of the radioactive nuclei present in a sample to decay.
Gender and sexual minority populations are experiencing rising anxiety and depression rates during the pandemic.
- Anxiety and depression rates are spiking in the LGBTQ+ community, and especially in individuals who hadn't struggled with those issues in the past.
- Overall, depression increased by an average PHQ-9 score of 1.21 and anxiety increased by an average GAD-7 score of 3.11.
- The researchers recommended that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.
Study findings<p>For the study, <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11606-020-05970-4" target="_blank">published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine</a><em>, </em>Flentje and her team evaluated survey responses from nearly 2,300 individuals who identified as being in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) community. Most of the participants were white, while nearly 19 percent identified as a racial or ethnic minority. Multiple genders were represented with cisgender women (27.2 percent) and men (24.6 percent) making up a majority of the participants. Sixty-three percent had been assigned female at birth. For the most part, participants identified their sexual orientations as queer (40.3 percent), gay (36.5 percent), and bisexual (30.3 percent).</p><p>The JGIM study participants were recruited from the 18,000-participant <a href="https://pridestudy.org/" target="_blank">PRIDE Study</a> (Population Research in Identity and Disparities for Equality), which is the first large-scale, long-term national study focusing on American adults who identify as LGBTQ+. It conducts annual questionnaires to understand factors related to health and disease in this population. </p><p>Participants filled out an annual questionnaire (starting in June 2019) and a COVID-19 impact survey this past spring. Flentje noted that on an individual level, some people may not have experienced a big change in anxiety or depression levels, but for others there was. Overall, depression increased by a <a href="https://patient.info/doctor/patient-health-questionnaire-phq-9" target="_blank">PHQ-9 score</a> of 1.21, putting it at 8.31 on average. Anxiety went up by a <a href="https://www.mdcalc.com/gad-7-general-anxiety-disorder-7" target="_blank">GAD-7</a> score of 3.11 to an average of 8.89. Interestingly, the average PHQ-9 scores for those who screened positive for depression at the first 2019 survey decreased by 1.08. Those who screened negative for depression saw their PHQ-9 scores increase by 2.17 on average. As for anxiety, researchers detected no GAD-7 change among the study participants who screened positive for anxiety in the first survey, but did see an overall increase of 3.93 among those who had initially been evaluated as negative for the disorder. </p>
Risks among gender and sexual minorities<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="fc3fd1ae68b77bbbf58a6995638d6d65"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/EnUqDjCqg0A?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>The LGBTQ+ community is a vulnerable population to mental health concerns because of their fear of stigmatization and previous discriminatory experiences.</p> <p>Previous research by the Human Rights Campaign has found "that LGBTQ Americans are more likely than the <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/general+population/" target="_blank">general population</a> to live in poverty and lack access to adequate medical care, paid <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/medical+leave/" target="_blank">medical leave</a>, and basic necessities during the pandemic," said researcher Tari Hanneman, director of the health and aging program at the campaign.</p> <p>"Therefore, it is not surprising to see this increase in anxiety and depression among this population," Hanneman said in the release. "This study highlights the need for <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/health+care+professionals/" target="_blank">health care professionals</a> to support, affirm and provide <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/critical+care/" target="_blank">critical care</a> for the LGBTQ community to manage and maintain their mental health, as well as their physical health, during this pandemic."</p>
What should health care providers do?<p>The authors of the study recommend that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders in members of that community—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.</p><p>As cases of COVID-19 continue to mount, the sustained social distancing, potential isolation, economic precariousness, and personal illness, grief, and loss are bound to have increased and varied impacts on mental health. Effective treatments may include individual therapy and medications as well as more large-scale coronavirus support programs like peer-led groups and mindfulness practices. </p><p>"It will be important to find out what happens over time and to identify who is most at risk, so we can be sure to roll out public health interventions to support the mental health of our communities in the best and most effective ways," said Flentje.</p>
What we know about black holes is both fascinating and scary.
- When it comes to black holes, science simultaneously knows so much and so little, which is why they are so fascinating. Focusing on what we do know, this group of astronomers, educators, and physicists share some of the most incredible facts about the powerful and mysterious objects.
- A black hole is so massive that light (and anything else it swallows) can't escape, says Bill Nye. You can't see a black hole, theoretical physicists Michio Kaku and Christophe Galfard explain, because it is too dark. What you can see, however, is the distortion of light around it caused by its extreme gravity.
- Explaining one unsettling concept from astrophysics called spaghettification, astronomer Michelle Thaller says that "If you got close to a black hole there would be tides over your body that small that would rip you apart into basically a strand of spaghetti that would fall down the black hole."