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The motivations behind schadenfreude are diverse — here are a few
The motivations behind this complex feeling.
- In many cases, envy plays a prominent role in the feeling of schadenfreude.
- Competition and rivalry exemplify taking pleasure in another's misery.
- A strong sense of moral justice pervades many aspects of schadenfreude.
Everybody has felt schadenfreude to some certain degree. That little bit of joy at the expense of another person's pain or failure. Some researchers have even suggested that there are certain types of schadenfreude. The many motivations behind the feeling helps to illustrate the diverse set of examples of schadenfreude.
Often schadenfreude stems from the dynamics of group identity, competition-based rivalries and a moral comeuppance, i.e. "to get what's coming to you." For example, when schadenfreude stems from group identity, you feel great when something bad happens to the opposing "team."
Rivalry takes multiple forms and can be on a one-to-one basis with people you actually know, or even be based on a social rivalry with people you've never met. Finally, justice based schadenfreude is the joy felt when someone is punished after having done something morally reprehensible for quite some time and used to get away with it.
Lofty social comparisons
Envy is one of the root causes of much of schadenfreude. It's only natural for individuals in a society to evaluate themselves based in relation to other people. As this is often the case, a notable figure's misstep will lead many to swell with satisfaction — resulting in schadenfreude. We see this when people take pleasure in a celebrity's downfall across the national media circuit.
Schadenfreude is quite present during highly-competitive situations. For example, a football player will feel a great sense of delight when the opposition's star quarterback gets hurt in the middle of a game. Schadenfreude may be a fleeting emotion that turns into sympathy later — once the game is over, for instance. On the more extreme level, though, this motivation can spur a zero-sum game, a situation where the ultimate desire is the total failure of the other.
If taken too far, this emotion, in this instance, can be viewed as a negative way of building self-esteem. Say, for example, your neighbor buys a brand new sports car and drives it around to show it off. Then, the next day, you find out it's been completely wrecked by a tree falling on it. You'd feel great because this "rival" of yours has been humbled.
Now you're both on an equal social economic standing, again. Schadenfreude is common amongst these little kinds of rivalries. Rivals enjoy when the other person's misfortune. The feeling is more pronounced than lofty social comparison-based schadenfreude because you're not just a bystander.
Tall poppy syndrome
Image source: Self-portrait, 1886, by Edvard Munch / Wikimedia Commons
The "tall poppy syndrome" is often referenced in the United Kingdom and Australia. It's informally defined as "a perceived tendency to discredit or disparage those who have achieved notable wealth or prominence in public life."
Cultures or people that resent high-status individuals feel good when misfortune is brought down upon them. Again, envy rears its head in this example. People covet either the talent, money, skill, or fame that envied person possesses. Many people's moralistic compass points toward the ideal of attaining equal status which is similar for all people.
If an individual's status gets too high, they may be targeted by the tall poppy syndrome. Then if they're knocked back down to size, people will feel schadenfreude at their resulting downfall.
Justice-based schadenfreude is the least socially reprehensible form of the emotion. It's the feeling that people get when some corrupt politician is exposed or con artist is found out.
Schadenfreude being tied to justice is one of the most prominent examples, as everyone shares in the delight when someone gets what they deserve. Sometimes justice based schadenfreude can border on the self-righteous. The justice felt is dependent on what the person feeling it observes as immoral or bad behavior. Once this person sees a "bad" behavior punished in some way, their sense of justice fills them with happiness. It's like a karmic retribution tinged with schadenfreude.
The feeling is experienced here because people feel that fairness has been reestablished and righted from a previous wrong.
What is human dignity? Here's a primer, told through 200 years of great essays, lectures, and novels.
- Human dignity means that each of our lives have an unimpeachable value simply because we are human, and therefore we are deserving of a baseline level of respect.
- That baseline requires more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose.
- We look at incredible writings from the last 200 years that illustrate the push for human dignity in regards to slavery, equality, communism, free speech and education.
The inherent worth of all human beings<p>Human dignity is the inherent worth of each individual human being. Recognizing human dignity means respecting human beings' special value—value that sets us apart from other animals; value that is intrinsic and cannot be lost.</p> <p>Liberalism—the broad political philosophy that organizes society around liberty, justice, and equality—is rooted in the idea of human dignity. Liberalism assumes each of our lives, plans, and preferences have some unimpeachable value, not because of any objective evaluation or contribution to a greater good, but simply because they belong to a human being. We are human, and therefore deserving of a baseline level of respect. </p> <p>Because so many of us take human dignity for granted—just a fact of our humanness—it's usually only when someone's dignity is ignored or violated that we feel compelled to talk about it. </p> <p>But human dignity means more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose—a freedom that can be hampered by restrictive social institutions or the tyranny of the majority. The liberal ideal of the good society is not just peaceful but also pluralistic: It is a society in which we respect others' right to think and live differently than we do.</p>
From the 19th century to today<p>With <a href="https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?year_start=1800&year_end=2019&content=human+dignity&corpus=26&smoothing=3&direct_url=t1%3B%2Chuman%20dignity%3B%2Cc0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Google Books Ngram Viewer</a>, we can chart mentions of human dignity from 1800-2019.</p><img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDg0ODU0My9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY1MTUwMzE4MX0.bu0D_0uQuyNLyJjfRESNhu7twkJ5nxu8pQtfa1w3hZs/img.png?width=980" id="7ef38" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9974c7bef3812fcb36858f325889e3c6" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
American novelist, writer, playwright, poet, essayist and civil rights activist James Baldwin at his home in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, southern France, on November 6, 1979.
Credit: Ralph Gatti/AFP via Getty Images
The future of dignity<p>Around the world, people are still working toward the full and equal recognition of human dignity. Every year, new speeches and writings help us understand what dignity is—not only what it looks like when dignity is violated but also what it looks like when dignity is honored. In his posthumous essay, Congressman Lewis wrote, "When historians pick up their pens to write the story of the 21st century, let them say that it was your generation who laid down the heavy burdens of hate at last and that peace finally triumphed over violence, aggression and war."</p> <p>The more we talk about human dignity, the better we understand it. And the sooner we can make progress toward a shared vision of peace, freedom, and mutual respect for all. </p>
Scientists find that bursts of gamma rays may exceed the speed of light and cause time-reversibility.
- Astrophysicists propose that gamma-ray bursts may exceed the speed of light.
- The superluminal jets may also be responsible for time-reversibility.
- The finding doesn't go against Einstein's theory because this effect happens in the jet medium not a vacuum.
Jet bursting out of a blazar. Black-hole-powered galaxies called blazars are the most common sources detected by NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.
Cosmic death beams: Understanding gamma ray bursts<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="cu2knVEk" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="c6cfd20fdf31c82cb206ade8ce21ba3f"> <div id="botr_cu2knVEk_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/cu2knVEk-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/cu2knVEk-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/cu2knVEk-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div>
Philosophers have been asking the question for hundreds of years. Now neuroscientists are joining the quest to find out.
- The debate over whether or not humans have free will is centuries old and ongoing. While studies have confirmed that our brains perform many tasks without conscious effort, there remains the question of how much we control and when it matters.
- According to Dr. Uri Maoz, it comes down to what your definition of free will is and to learning more about how we make decisions versus when it is ok for our brain to subconsciously control our actions and movements.
- "If we understand the interplay between conscious and unconscious," says Maoz, "it might help us realize what we can control and what we can't."
Puerto Rico's iconic telescope facilitated important scientific discoveries while inspiring young scientists and the public imagination.
- The Arecibo Observatory's main telescope collapsed on Tuesday morning.
- Although officials had been planning to demolish the telescope, the accident marked an unceremonious end to a beloved astronomical tool.
- The Arecibo radio telescope has facilitated many discoveries in astronomy, including the mapping of near-Earth asteroids and the detection of exoplanets.
Bradley Rivera via twitter.com<p>In 1963, the concave dish was built into a natural sinkhole on the northern coast of Puerto Rico. The location was <a href="https://www.space.com/20984-arecibo-observatory.html" target="_blank">picked because it was near the equator,</a> providing scientists a clear view of planets passing overhead, and also of the ionosphere, which is the uniquely reactive layer of Earth's upper atmosphere where the northern lights form.</p><p>Since its construction, scientists have used the Arecibo telescope to map near-Earth asteroids, detect gravitational waves, study pulsars, detect exoplanets and <a href="https://www.seti.org/goodbye-arecibo" target="_blank">search for alien civilizations</a>, among other projects. Here's a brief look at some of the discoveries and accomplishments made using the Arecibo telescope:</p><ul><li>1964: Astronomer <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gordon_Pettengill" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Gordon Pettengill</a> discovers that Mercury's rotation period is 59 days, significantly shorter than the previous prediction of 88 days.</li><li>1974: Physicists Russell Alan Hulse and Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr. discovers the first binary pulsar, for which they won a Nobel Prize in Physics.</li><li>1974: Scientists use the telescope to transmit the "Arecibo message" to <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Globular_Cluster_in_Hercules" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">globular star cluster M13</a>. The message, when translated into image form, contains basic information about humanity and human knowledge: the numbers one to 10, a map of our solar system, an illustration of a human being, and the atomic numbers of certain elements.</li><li>1989: Scientists use the telescope to image an asteroid for the first time.</li><li>1992: Astronomers Alex Wolszczan and Dale Frail become the first to discover exoplanets.</li></ul>
The Google-owned company developed a system that can reliably predict the 3D shapes of proteins.