Behold, the '70s sci-fi book series that popularized the Illuminati conspiracy
Modern notions about the Illuminati are the result of a satirical cult-classic book.
- The historical Illuminati was a failed 18th century Bavarian secret society.
- Current Illuminati conspiracies stem from a satirical '70s counterculture book.
- Authors Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson's intent was to sow chaotic disinformation just for the satire.
The Illuminati has become a stand-in myth for every conspiratorial crackpots' idea of some omnipresent cabal pulling the strings on world affairs. Depending on who you ask, sometimes they're responsible for some two-bit celebrity's rise to fame, orchestrators of catastrophic events, or planting some head of state to power.
Whatever blame or malice is placed on the Illuminati, most rationally-minded people quickly see through this and understand it's complete nonsense.
On the subject of conspiracy in general, famed comic book writer Alan Moore, summed it up quite nicely when he said:
"The main thing that I learned about conspiracy theory is that conspiracy theorists actually believe in a conspiracy because that is more comforting. The truth of the world is that it is chaotic. The truth is, that it is not the Jewish banking conspiracy or the grey aliens or the 12 foot reptilians from another dimension that are in control."
You've got to hand it to conspiracy theorists, if there is one thing they've given us — it's that their kooky ideas make for some great fiction. This was where counterculture legend Robert Anton Wilson, inspired by the text of Principia Discordia, would begin drafting a story that would give way to the the Illuminatus! trilogy.
In writing the books, he created the conspiracy of the Illuminati that we have with us today.
The truth is more frightening, nobody is in control. The world is rudderless.
Origins of the real Illuminati
Sometimes real conspiracies exist. Warring factions vye for power and cut covert deals. Many times, organizations will arise in secret to overthrow supposed unjust governments or other ruling powers. Take conspiracy at face value and you see that every great country in this world was once just a little meandering conspiracy in a few men's minds. The original illuminati was one such failed enterprise.
In late 18th century Bavaria, scholar and university professor Adam Weishaupt formed a secret group that sought to follow in line with Enlightenment principles in lieu of the hard-line Jesuit order at the time. Ironically, the original Illuminati wanted to create a society led by science and reason as opposed to an unexamined religious mentality.
The group started in 1776, where they recruited a number of intelligent thinkers into the group. According to modern historian Reinhard Markner:
"The Illuminati managed to recruit quite a large number of influential men — princes and their councillors, high-ranking bureaucrats, university professors and other educators, writers and intellectuals."
The original order ceased to exist in 1788 and never really caught on. Markner explains that the group was pretty unremarkable for its time as there was numerous secret organizations popping up during that era.
It wasn't until some two hundred years later that Robert Anton WIlson would resurrect this run-of-the-mill society and turn it into the conspiracy we know today.
The writer once remarked,
"Everybody who has ever worked for a corporation knows that corporations conspire all the time. Politicians conspire all the time, pot-dealers conspire not to get caught by the narcs, the world is full of conspiracies. Conspiracy is natural primate behavior."
Invention of the modern Illuminati conspiracy
Illuminatus trilogy. Image source: Robert Shea and Robert Anton WIlson
Wilson and Shea crafted the text with the intent to bring some good old-fashioned disinformation and chaos back into the culture — just for the fun of it. They decided this would be best done by telling stories about the Illuminati.
During this time, Wilson worked as a writer and editor for Playboy. Allegedly, Wilson, along with a couple of other writers, began writing fake letters to the magazine to start talking about the elite super-secretive organization called the Illuminati. Later, they'd send more letters in contradicting what they'd just written and stirring even more intrigue.
Eventually, this culminated in the Illuminatus! trilogy, for those in the know it was a fantastic cult classic of top tier satire. Weaving nonsense from the Kennedy assassination to the deeper and more insidious nature of the Illuminati. For others, who believe this tripe… not so much. Indeed, according to Wilson:
You simply cannot invent any conspiracy theory so ridiculous and obviously satirical that some people somewhere don't already believe it.Now no amount of sermonizing or factual evidence will help the conspiratorial fanatic. Conspiracy leads to anti-scientific thinking and a populace without any self-agency. All we can do is crack open a book (why not the Illuminatus! trilogy?) and have ourselves a good laugh on the absurd origins of the Illuminati conspiracy.
What can 3D printing do for medicine? The "sky is the limit," says Northwell Health researcher Dr. Todd Goldstein.
- Medical professionals are currently using 3D printers to create prosthetics and patient-specific organ models that doctors can use to prepare for surgery.
- Eventually, scientists hope to print patient-specific organs that can be transplanted safely into the human body.
- Northwell Health, New York State's largest health care provider, is pioneering 3D printing in medicine in three key ways.
Great ideas in philosophy often come in dense packages. Then there is where the work of Marcus Aurelius.
- Meditations is a collection of the philosophical ideas of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius.
- Written as a series of notes to himself, the book is much more readable than the dry philosophy most people are used to.
- The advice he gave to himself 2,000 years ago is increasingly applicable in our hectic, stressed-out lives.
Can dirt help us fight off stress? Groundbreaking new research shows how.
- New research identifies a bacterium that helps block anxiety.
- Scientists say this can lead to drugs for first responders and soldiers, preventing PTSD and other mental issues.
- The finding builds on the hygiene hypothesis, first proposed in 1989.
Are modern societies trying too hard to be clean, at the detriment to public health? Scientists discovered that a microorganism living in dirt can actually be good for us, potentially helping the body to fight off stress. Harnessing its powers can lead to a "stress vaccine".
Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder found that the fatty 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid from the soil-residing bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae aids immune cells in blocking pathways that increase inflammation and the ability to combat stress.
The study's senior author and Integrative Physiology Professor Christopher Lowry described this fat as "one of the main ingredients" in the "special sauce" that causes the beneficial effects of the bacterium.
The finding goes hand in hand with the "hygiene hypothesis," initially proposed in 1989 by the British scientist David Strachan. He maintained that our generally sterile modern world prevents children from being exposed to certain microorganisms, resulting in compromised immune systems and greater incidences of asthma and allergies.
Contemporary research fine-tuned the hypothesis, finding that not interacting with so-called "old friends" or helpful microbes in the soil and the environment, rather than the ones that cause illnesses, is what's detrimental. In particular, our mental health could be at stake.
"The idea is that as humans have moved away from farms and an agricultural or hunter-gatherer existence into cities, we have lost contact with organisms that served to regulate our immune system and suppress inappropriate inflammation," explained Lowry. "That has put us at higher risk for inflammatory disease and stress-related psychiatric disorders."
University of Colorado Boulder
This is not the first study on the subject from Lowry, who published previous work showing the connection between being exposed to healthy bacteria and mental health. He found that being raised with animals and dust in a rural environment helps children develop more stress-proof immune systems. Such kids were also likely to be less at risk for mental illnesses than people living in the city without pets.
Lowry's other work also pointed out that the soil-based bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae acts like an antidepressant when injected into rodents. It alters their behavior and has lasting anti-inflammatory effects on the brain, according to the press release from the University of Colorado Boulder. Prolonged inflammation can lead to such stress-related disorders as PTSD.
The new study from Lowry and his team identified why that worked by pinpointing the specific fatty acid responsible. They showed that when the 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid gets into cells, it works like a lock, attaching itself to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). This allows it to block a number of key pathways responsible for inflammation. Pre-treating the cells with the acid (or lipid) made them withstand inflammation better.
Lowry thinks this understanding can lead to creating a "stress vaccine" that can be given to people in high-stress jobs, like first responders or soldiers. The vaccine can prevent the psychological effects of stress.
What's more, this friendly bacterium is not the only potentially helpful organism we can find in soil.
"This is just one strain of one species of one type of bacterium that is found in the soil but there are millions of other strains in soils," said Lowry. "We are just beginning to see the tip of the iceberg in terms of identifying the mechanisms through which they have evolved to keep us healthy. It should inspire awe in all of us."
Check out the study published in the journal Psychopharmacology.
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