Bolman & Deal frameworks
Most educational administration graduate students can tell you about Bolman
& Deal's leadership frameworks
. The frames help change agents
conceptualize different approaches to an issue. Depending on the circumstances,
one approach may be more appropriate than another. Or, most likely, several
approaches in combination will be most successful. Bolman & Deal's four
frames are as follows:
- Structural. Leaders who make change using this
approach focus on structural elements within the organization as well as
strategy, implementation, and adaptation. Changing institutional structures
works well when goals are clear, when cause-and-effect relationships are well
understood, and when there is little conflict, uncertainty, or ambiguity.
human resource frame focus on people. This approach emphasizes support,
empowerment (perhaps through distributed leadership mechanisms), staff
development, and responsiveness to employee needs. A focus on people works well
when employee morale is a consideration and when there is relatively little
facilitate change focus on the political realities that exist within and outside
organizations. This approach emphasizes dealing with interest groups (and their
varying agendas), building power bases, coalition-building, negotiating
conflicts over limited resources, and creating compromises. The political
approach is appropriate when resources are scarce or diminishing as well as when
goals or values are in conflict.
approach focus on vision and inspiration. Symbolic leaders feel that people
need to believe that their personal work, and the work of the organization, is important and
meaningful. Traditions, ceremonies, and rituals are very important to the
symbolic approach, which is most appropriate when goals and/or cause-and-effect
relationships are unclear.
on Bolman & Deal's four frames]
Bolman & Deal's frames can be used at the planning stage of a change
initiative to help diagnose organizational needs, to identify institutional
challenges and contexts, and to devise appopriate actions (e.g., 'For this initiative, we need to be sure to address the political aspects because...').
The frames also can be used to rethink and reframe unsuccessful change
initiatives (e.g., 'This initiative failed because we didn't appropriately
address the human resource frame.').
A combination of the four perspectives is nearly always warranted when
implementing a change initiative. Unfortunately, I think most educators would
agree that the structural aspects of change initiatives tend to be emphasized quite
strongly (e.g., 'We'll create a new program' or 'we'll reorganize ourselves' or
'we'll buy some technology to help') with a concurrent neglect of the other
three frames. Because school leaders often may be strong in one or two of
these frames but not all four, it is important to get others on board to
adequately conceptualize and address all needed aspects of the change initiative.
I'm sure most of you can identify a situation where an emphasis, or lack of emphasis, on one of these frames led to a change initiative's success or failure.
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It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
Do you have a magnetic compass in your head?
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