How to Use Anger to Your Advantage
People with power interrupt. People without power get interrupted.
Barack Obama once joked about the temperament of his chief of staff Rahm Emanuel, saying that as a boy Emanuel "lost part of his middle finger. As a result of this, this rendered him practically mute."
Emanuel, now the Mayor of Chicago, is well-known for his use of profane language, which wouldn't seem to be a strong attribute for a politician. For instance, one of the leading candidates to be Mayor of New York City, Christine C. Quinn, has had to deal with the perception that she has a highly volatile personality.
Nonetheless, being shrewd politicians, neither Emanuel nor Quinn are known to show their anger in public. But both are known to use anger as a highly effective tool for exercising power in private meetings. And you can use this tool as well, argues Jeffrey Pfeffer, Professor of Organizational Behavior at the Stanford University Graduate School of Business.
According to Pfeffer, power-brokers like Emanuel displays anger strategically to throw people off. Emanuel gets his way because "most people are conflict-averse."
Of course, using anger as a tool for obtaining power is not going to make you well-liked. But in situations such as negotiations, being well-liked is not the goal.
"People with power interrupt," Pfeffer points out. "People without power get interrupted."
If you look at the power dynamics among genders, men tend to interrupt women more and finish their sentences. And so to the extent that more women interrupt men, Pfeffer argues, the more power they will have.
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The findings are based on a phenomenon known as the "Mighty Girl Effect."
- The study tracked the responses of more than 5,000 men over the course of a decade.
- The results showed that men who lived with daughters were less likely to hold traditional views on gender relations and roles.
- This effect seemed to be strongest as the daughters entered secondary-school age.
The photos were taken the same day as Russian cosmonauts investigated a mysterious hole discovered in one of the craft.
- The spacecraft belong to Russia and two private American aerospace companies.
- Six astronauts are currently aboard the International Space Station to conduct a variety of experiments.
- On Monday, Russian cosmonauts conducted a spacewalk to investigate the nature and cause of a mysterious 2-millimeter-wide hole in a Russian spacecraft.
The billionaire entrepreneur predicts the rise of technology will soon force society to rethink the modern work week.
- Branson made the argument in a recent blog post published on the Virgin website.
- The 40-hour work week stems from labor laws created in the early 20th century, and many have said this model is becoming increasingly obsolete.
- The average American currently works 47 hours per week, on average.
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