Myth Busters: Merging the Formal with the Informal to Create a "Third Space" for Civic Science Education
Matthew C. Nisbet, Ph.D. is Associate Professor of Communication Studies, Public Policy, and Urban Affairs at Northeastern University. Nisbet studies the role of communication and advocacy in policymaking and public affairs, focusing on debates over over climate change, energy, and sustainability. Among awards and recognition, Nisbet has been a Visiting Shorenstein Fellow on Press, Politics, and Public Policy at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government, a Health Policy Investigator at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and a Google Science Communication Fellow. In 2011, the editors at the journal Nature recommended Nisbet's research as “essential reading for anyone with a passing interest in the climate change debate,” and the New Republic highlighted his work as a “fascinating dissection of the shortcomings of climate activism."
More than 2 million people tuned in to see President Obama appear on Myth Busters last week, an appearance that the president used to symbolize his dedication to improving science education in the United States. The program was the highest rated in its time slot, propelled mostly by capturing an audience of 18-30 year old men.
Myth Busters ignites public imagination because the program embodies the type of playground learning context that young people and adults yearn for but seldom encounter at school. The unfortunate myth surrounding Obama's Myth Buster appearance is that very few classrooms in the U.S. enable students to ask the creative questions or propose the types of experiments that Obama had the chance to suggest on the program (see video).
The activities depicted in Myth Busters are representative of what Oregon State University education scholar John Falk terms "free choice" science education, lifelong informal learning that is intrinsically motivated and largely under the choice and control of the learner. Free choice contexts include learning by interacting with media, family, friends, community organizations, and science centers such as The Exploratorium. Falk argues that the value and importance of free-choice learning has been consistently under-appreciated by policy-makers and decision-makers.
I began to consider this problem over the past week as I came across a recently published comprehensive review of cross-national reports and studies on trends and challenges in science education by Susan Stocklmayer and several colleagues.
Stocklmayer, director of The Centre for the Public Awareness of Science at The Australian National University, outlines a framework for incorporating “second space” informal science education-type activities and modes of learning into “first space” formal science education curricula. The result is a “third space” for science education that is likely to increase student engagement, clearly demonstrate the relevance of content, promote inquiry-based learning, provide for transdisciplinary contexts, and promote understanding of the social and historical context of science.
Reflecting some of my own emphasis on the need to invest in civic science education, Stocklmayer and colleagues argue that formal education must broaden to focus on more than traditional understanding of major scientific concepts, facts, and processes, but to also consider the role of science education in shaping civil society. In this regard, they emphasize that formal learning should lead to:
And here importantly, the authors drawing on research in the area, propose that activities and programs developed in the informal learning sector at science centers, museums, and related community programs, if integrated into the formal education setting, are uniquely suited for achieving these civic education outcomes.
In synthesizing available research on informal learning, they summarize several different factors from the informal sector that can enhance learning and individual engagement in the classroom. These include:
They write their conclusion that if these factors from the informal sector are to be incorporated into formal education—creating a third space for learning—it has to be a holistic approach driven by systematic revisions to the education system rather than a piecemeal effort where individual educators or scientists experiment with strategies.
Stocklmayer, S.M., Rennie, L.J., & Gilbert, J.K. (2010). The roles of the formal and informal sectors in the provision of effective science education. Studies in Science Education, 46 (1), 1-44.
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- Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens are one of the largest threats to global health today.
- As we get older, our immune systems age, increasing our risk of life threatening infections. Without reliable antibiotics, life expectancy could decline for the first time in modern history.
- If antibiotics become ineffective, common infections could result in hospitalization or even death. Life-saving interventions like cancer treatments and organ transplantation would become more difficult, more often resulting in death. Routine procedures would become hard to perform.
- Without intervention, resistant pathogens could result in 10 million annual deaths by 2050.
- By taking a multi-faceted approach—inclusive of adherence to good stewardship, surveillance and responsible manufacturing practices, as well as an emphasis on prevention and treatment—companies like Pfizer are fighting to help curb the spread.
Journalism got a big wake up call in 2016. Can we be optimistic about the future of media?
- "[T]o have a democracy that thrives and actually that manages to stay alive at all, you need regular citizens being able to get good, solid information," says Craig Newmark.
- The only constructive way to deal with fake news? Support trustworthy media. In 2018, Newmark was announced as a major donor of two new media organizations, The City, which will report on New York City-area stories which may have otherwise gone unreported, and The Markup, which will report on technology.
- Greater transparency of fact-checking within media organizations could help confront and correct fake news. Organizations already exist to make media more trustworthy — are we using them? There's The Trust Project, International Fact-Checkers Network, and Tech & Check.
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