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Seeing Things That Aren't There? That's Just Your Brain Functioning Normally
"Pay attention to that alley over there. A gorilla in a clown suit is going to come out of it in a second." If I said that to you, and the ape subsequently appeared, you would (rightly) conclude that I'd helped you see the beast by focussing your attention on the right place at the right time. Suppose, though, that I'd said to look at the alley after the gorilla rushed by. And then you realized, hey, I saw a gorilla over there! That would be weird right? After all, if awareness is a straightforward record of what we've seen, then you either see the gorilla or you miss it. Outside of dreams, there's not supposed to be "miss the gorilla, look where it was, then change the record to say that you saw it." But, this paper suggests, intuition is wrong, and this dreamlike revising is indeed a part of everyday waking perception. In other words, it isn't always seeing a gorilla that makes you focus on the alley. Sometimes, focussing on the alley makes you see the gorilla.
In the study, published last month in the journal Current Biology, Claire Sergent and her colleagues had 18 volunteers look at a computer screen on which were two circles. After a moment, one of the two circles filled with fuzzy parallel lines for a mere 20th of a second. The volunteers then had to say which circle contained the lines and how they were oriented (vertical, horizontal or various kinds of diagonal). People's ability to answer correctly was much enhanced if they had a cue—if the correct circle dimmed a bit just before the lines appeared—thus drawing their attention.
Remarkably, though, people also did better on the task if the relevant circle dimmed about a half second after the lines had appeared. As Sergent et al. write, "this suggests that, contrary to a commonly held assumption, postcueing can influence perception itself."
You might think that this cueing effect was a sort of hallucination—that people could have imagined lines only because, and wherever, they'd seen the circle dim. But Sergent et al. eliminated that possibility by dimming both circles in one set of tests. In this case, people still saw the lines in the place where they had really appeared before the cue. They weren't following the cue alone to imagine something wherever it appeared; rather, the focussing device was leading them to see something that really had appeared—but which was no longer visible when they realized they had seen it.
There has been a lot of research over the years on perceptions that never reach awareness. For example, people whose visual cortex is damaged are unaware of seeing anything, yet they often react to things in their field of vision. Sergent et al.'s study is significant because it's not about these kinds of perceptions outside of consciousness. Instead, it's a demonstration that the mind can edit perceptions before they reach consciousness. Therefore Sergent et al. also had to eliminate the possibility that these results were a kind of blindsight, in which people were giving correct answers without knowing how or what they knew.
To address this, the researchers ran the experiment on another 18 people, and this time, added a measure of their awareness: in addition to saying where the lines were and how they were oriented, volunteers also had to rate how visible they were. There was a certain amount of projection, or "response bias," here, with people reporting better visibility wherever there was a cue (even when no actual lines had appeared). Despite that noise, though, there were "drastic improvements" the reported visibility of lines that had appeared and vanished just before the attention-focussing cues. In other words, post-event cues weren't just causing people to see lines in the right places; those cues were also causing people to know that they'd seen something. Which suggests that the reality you see around you isn't a "raw feed" of data coming from the eyes and visual centers of the brain, but a product that has been edited—and (as Dan Dennett points out here) is still being edited, by "you," even as "you" consume it.
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Sergent, C., Wyart, V., Babo-Rebelo, M., Cohen, L., Naccache, L., & Tallon-Baudry, C. (2013). Cueing Attention after the Stimulus Is Gone Can Retrospectively Trigger Conscious Perception Current Biology, 23 (2), 150-155 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2012.11.047
Educators and administrators must build new supports for faculty and student success in a world where the classroom might become virtual in the blink of an eye.
- If you or someone you know is attending school remotely, you are more than likely learning through emergency remote instruction, which is not the same as online learning, write Rich DeMillo and Steve Harmon.
- Education institutions must properly define and understand the difference between a course that is designed from inception to be taught in an online format and a course that has been rapidly converted to be offered to remote students.
- In a future involving more online instruction than any of us ever imagined, it will be crucial to meticulously design factors like learner navigation, interactive recordings, feedback loops, exams and office hours in order to maximize learning potential within the virtual environment.
A leading British space scientist thinks there is life under the ice sheets of Europa.
- A British scientist named Professor Monica Grady recently came out in support of extraterrestrial life on Europa.
- Europa, the sixth largest moon in the solar system, may have favorable conditions for life under its miles of ice.
- The moon is one of Jupiter's 79.
Neil deGrasse Tyson wants to go ice fishing on Europa<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="GLGsRX7e" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="f4790eb8f0515e036b24c4195299df28"> <div id="botr_GLGsRX7e_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/GLGsRX7e-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/GLGsRX7e-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/GLGsRX7e-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div>
Water Vapor Above Europa’s Surface Deteced for First Time<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9c4abc8473e1b89170cc8941beeb1f2d"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/WQ-E1lnSOzc?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
New study shows white dwarf stars create an essential component of life.
- White dwarf stars create carbon atoms in the Milky Way galaxy, shows new study.
- Carbon is an essential component of life.
- White dwarfs make carbon in their hot insides before the stars die.
What Are White Dwarf Stars?<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="7b046e546ce994682b2553a8c978eb32"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/77a1KSxfaR0?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Master negotiator Chris Voss breaks down how to get what you want during negotiations.
- Former FBI negotiator Chris Voss explains how forced empathy is a powerful negotiating tactic.
- The key is starting a sentence with "What" or "How," causing the other person to look at the situation through your eyes.
- What appears to signal weakness is turned into a strength when using this tactic.
3 Tips on Negotiations, with FBI Negotiator Chris Voss | Best of '16 | Big Think<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="b86d518e9f0c9f9d7a7c686e07798152"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/-FLlBchonwM?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>This question forces a response, but—and this is key—the other person has to consider your side of the argument. They have to look at the situation from your perspective if they hope to offer a solution.</p><p>Offering a real-world example, Voss mentions coaching a high-end real estate agent. They were leasing an expensive home in the Hollywood Hills. The first time the negotiators asked the "how" question, the leasing agent relented on a number of terms. A little while later, they asked again. This time, the agent said, "If you want the house you're going to have to do it," signaling that the end of negotiations had been reached. </p><p>Voss says that "how" is not the only word that works. "What" is also a powerful entry into negotiations, such as "What am I supposed to do?" Again, you're forcing the other person to empathize. </p><p>This is a particularly tricky skill during a time when most conversations are online. Nuance is impossible without the immediacy of pantomimes and vocal fluctuations. Whataboutism is too easy an escape. </p>
Aikido Morihei Ueshiba (1883 - 1969, standing, centre left), founder of the Japanese martial art of aikido, demonstrating his art with a follower, at the opening ceremony of the newly-opened aikido headquarters, Hombu Dojo, in Shinjuku, Tokyo, 1967.
(Photo by Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images)<p>Online debates often amount to little more than frustrated individuals pulling out their hair. In his book, "Against Empathy," Yale psychology professor Paul Bloom writes that effective altruists are able to focus on what really matters in everyday life.</p><p>For example, he compares politics to sports. Rooting for your favorite team isn't based in rationality. If you're a Red Sox fan, Yankees stats don't matter. You just want to destroy them. This, he believes, is how most people treat politics. "They don't care about truth because, for them, it's not really about truth."</p><p>Bloom writes that if his son believed our ancestors rode dinosaurs, it would horrify him, but "I can't think of a view that matters less for everyday life." We have to strive for rationality when the stakes are high. When involved in real decision-making processes that will affect their life, people are better able to express ideas and make arguments, and are more receptive to opposing ideas. </p><p>Because we "become inured to problems that seem unrelenting," it's imperative to make the problem seem immediate. As Voss says, giving the other side "the illusion of control" is one way of accomplishing this, as it forces them to take action. When people feel out of control, negotiations are impossible. People dig their heels in and refuse to budge. </p><p>What seems to be weakness is actually a strength. To borrow another martial arts metaphor, negotiations are like aikido: using your opponent's force against them while also protecting them from injury. Forcing empathy is one way to accomplish this task. You may get more than you ask for without the other side ever realizing they surrendered anything.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>