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The Nuclear Threat to Our Cities
Graham Allison is Director of Harvard's Center for Science and International Affairs and a leading analyst of U.S. national security and defense policy, with a special interest in nuclear weapons, terrorism, and decision-making. As Assistant Secretary of Defense in the first Clinton Administration, Dr. Allison received the Defense Department's highest civilian award, the Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service, for "reshaping relations with Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan to reduce the former Soviet nuclear arsenal." This resulted in the safe return of more than 12,000 tactical nuclear weapons from the former Soviet republics and the complete elimination of more than 4,000 strategic nuclear warheads previously targeted at the United States. Dr. Allison also served as Special Advisor to the Secretary of Defense under President Reagan.
Dr. Allison’s most recent book, "Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe" is now in its third printing and was selected by the New York Times as one of the "100 most notable books of 2004."
Question: How great is the terror threat now as compared to pre-9/11?
Graham Allison: Well I think 9/11 was a like a bolt of lightning that luminated the landscape and that allowed us to see more vividly trend lines that were happening before but that we were most Americans were oblivious of. Before 9/11, people imagined that Americans lived in a security bubble in which bad things happen over there, we watch them on TV but not really here. 9/11 brought home the reality that now we live in a world in which nineteen men with very little money basically living off their theft and their other activity in the U.S. were able to kill twice as many Americans as the Japanese killed in an attack at Pearl Harbor. So we live in a different world. The way I explain it to my students is there’s been a paradigm shift and most people’s mental map hasn’t caught up with it. In the old days, we thought only states could organize violence and kill at the level of thousands or tens of thousands in a single blow. Now we know post 9/11, we should have know before and those of us who studied it were talking about it well in advance of this, but now we know that a small group of dedicated people if they are able to assemble the means to kill can kill at the level of states. So, we saw mega-terrorism on 9/11, we saw subsequent mega-terrorists attacks in other countries for example, the London subway bombing or Madrid or Bali and I would say now that’s part of the world that we live with now. So, today the risk of a single nuclear bomb exploding in an American city or in a city anywhere in the world is greater than it was during the Cold War. During the Cold War, we worried about Armageddon that would be a nuclear war in which all nuclear weapons would be used and maybe everyone would have been killed. Mercifully that’s the likelihood of that has declined dramatically with the end of the Cold War but ironically, the likelihood of a single nuclear bomb made by somebody like the U. S. or the Soviet Union during the Cold War or Pakistan or North Korea getting into the hands of somebody like Osama Bin Laden and exploding in one of our cities has increased, and I’d say the likelihood of that over the past decade since we’ve seen it since 9/11 is mixed. There’s some positives and there’s some negatives. Al-Qaeda has obviously been significantly degraded, but the al-Qaeda movement for the affiliates remain quite substantial and the 9/11 having happened it’s now the fact it’s been demonstrated it’s possible to kill at the level of thousands, so I would say the dangers are greater today than they were a decade ago.
Question: In the worst-case scenario, how soon could terrorists obtain and deploy a nuclear weapon?
Graham Allison: Most people don’t realize it but one month to the day after 9/11, the U.S. believed there was a live nuclear bomb in New York City about to be exploded. So here a source reported to the U.S. and George Tenant, who was director of the CIA, reported to President Bush that Al-Qaeda had a small nuclear bomb and had it in New York City and might be about to explode it and after a period of kind of catching breathe, there was an interrogatory in which the President wanted to know well did Al- did the former Soviet arsenal have bombs of the description that Al- that Dragon Fire had given the answer, “Yes.” Were all these weapons adequately accounted for, answer, “No.” Could Al-Qaeda acquired one of these weapons and have it in New York and be able to explode it and we not know anything about it? Answer, “Yes.” So there was no basis, the conclusion of this was no basis in science or technology or logic for denying Dragon Fire’s report that there was now a live bomb in New York and on that basis, the President ordered the Vice-President leave Washington because it was thought that geese, there might be a bomb in Washington as well. The NESS **** Teams were these nuclear experts went to New York to look for sign of radioactivity. It turns out and you can read about it if you’re interested that it was a false alarm but what it was was a sharp reminder that the only thing that stands between 9/11, three thousand a nuclear 9/11 which could kill three hundred thousand people or more is the terrorists getting a nuclear bomb or getting the material from which they could make an elementary nuclear bomb. So the only difference there, it’s not intention, not organized capabilities since the 9/11 attack was well into the zone of demonstrated organizational competence, it’s just their getting their hands on a bomb. Now let’s pray and let’s hope and let’s work to make sure they don’t get their hands on a bomb but, that’s the issue.
Question: How can mass-scale terrorism be most effectively prevented?
Graham Allison: While it’s not possible to prevent all future terrorist attacks that will for sure a hundred percent be future terrorist attacks that kill Americans here at home - that you can write it down, put it in the bank - there were before 9/11, actually you have to remember in Oklahoma City, just a decade ago a homegrown American terrorist killed a hundred and sixty-two children and women and men at the Federal Office Building in Oklahoma City, so we can’t stop all nuclear, all terrorist attacks. Fortunately, in the case of the only terrorist attack that could kill hundreds of thousands of people in a single blow that is a nuclear terrorist attack we can successfully prevent it. And it comes from the happy syllogism from physics. No fissile material, no mushroom cloud, no nuclear terrorism, so all we have to do, all is a lot, but all we have to do is lock up all nuclear weapons and all nuclear material as good as the Gold in Fort Knox to prevent terrorists not being able to get nuclear weapons. Terrorists can’t make fissile material, only states can do that. Terrorists can’t make a nuclear bomb, that’s what states do, but if terrorists were to get a nuclear bomb out of the Pakistani arsenal or out of the former Soviet arsenal or out of the, North Korea, then with the organizational capability that they’ve demonstrated on 9/11 and the intent which they’ve asserted over and over, they could envelop an American city in a mushroom cloud.
Recorded on February 17, 2010
Interviewed by Austin Allen
The likelihood of a doomsday war has declined since the Soviet Union fell, but the chances of a nuclear attack on a major city have risen dramatically. How can we ward off catastrophe?
Join The Daily Show comedian Jordan Klepper and elite improviser Bob Kulhan live at 1 pm ET on Tuesday, July 14!
Gender and sexual minority populations are experiencing rising anxiety and depression rates during the pandemic.
- Anxiety and depression rates are spiking in the LGBTQ+ community, and especially in individuals who hadn't struggled with those issues in the past.
- Overall, depression increased by an average PHQ-9 score of 1.21 and anxiety increased by an average GAD-7 score of 3.11.
- The researchers recommended that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.
Study findings<p>For the study, <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11606-020-05970-4" target="_blank">published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine</a><em>, </em>Flentje and her team evaluated survey responses from nearly 2,300 individuals who identified as being in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) community. Most of the participants were white, while nearly 19 percent identified as a racial or ethnic minority. Multiple genders were represented with cisgender women (27.2 percent) and men (24.6 percent) making up a majority of the participants. Sixty-three percent had been assigned female at birth. For the most part, participants identified their sexual orientations as queer (40.3 percent), gay (36.5 percent), and bisexual (30.3 percent).</p><p>The JGIM study participants were recruited from the 18,000-participant <a href="https://pridestudy.org/" target="_blank">PRIDE Study</a> (Population Research in Identity and Disparities for Equality), which is the first large-scale, long-term national study focusing on American adults who identify as LGBTQ+. It conducts annual questionnaires to understand factors related to health and disease in this population. </p><p>Participants filled out an annual questionnaire (starting in June 2019) and a COVID-19 impact survey this past spring. Flentje noted that on an individual level, some people may not have experienced a big change in anxiety or depression levels, but for others there was. Overall, depression increased by a <a href="https://patient.info/doctor/patient-health-questionnaire-phq-9" target="_blank">PHQ-9 score</a> of 1.21, putting it at 8.31 on average. Anxiety went up by a <a href="https://www.mdcalc.com/gad-7-general-anxiety-disorder-7" target="_blank">GAD-7</a> score of 3.11 to an average of 8.89. Interestingly, the average PHQ-9 scores for those who screened positive for depression at the first 2019 survey decreased by 1.08. Those who screened negative for depression saw their PHQ-9 scores increase by 2.17 on average. As for anxiety, researchers detected no GAD-7 change among the study participants who screened positive for anxiety in the first survey, but did see an overall increase of 3.93 among those who had initially been evaluated as negative for the disorder. </p>
Risks among gender and sexual minorities<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="fc3fd1ae68b77bbbf58a6995638d6d65"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/EnUqDjCqg0A?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>The LGBTQ+ community is a vulnerable population to mental health concerns because of their fear of stigmatization and previous discriminatory experiences.</p> <p>Previous research by the Human Rights Campaign has found "that LGBTQ Americans are more likely than the <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/general+population/" target="_blank">general population</a> to live in poverty and lack access to adequate medical care, paid <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/medical+leave/" target="_blank">medical leave</a>, and basic necessities during the pandemic," said researcher Tari Hanneman, director of the health and aging program at the campaign.</p> <p>"Therefore, it is not surprising to see this increase in anxiety and depression among this population," Hanneman said in the release. "This study highlights the need for <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/health+care+professionals/" target="_blank">health care professionals</a> to support, affirm and provide <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/critical+care/" target="_blank">critical care</a> for the LGBTQ community to manage and maintain their mental health, as well as their physical health, during this pandemic."</p>
What should health care providers do?<p>The authors of the study recommend that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders in members of that community—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.</p><p>As cases of COVID-19 continue to mount, the sustained social distancing, potential isolation, economic precariousness, and personal illness, grief, and loss are bound to have increased and varied impacts on mental health. Effective treatments may include individual therapy and medications as well as more large-scale coronavirus support programs like peer-led groups and mindfulness practices. </p><p>"It will be important to find out what happens over time and to identify who is most at risk, so we can be sure to roll out public health interventions to support the mental health of our communities in the best and most effective ways," said Flentje.</p>
What we know about black holes is both fascinating and scary.
- When it comes to black holes, science simultaneously knows so much and so little, which is why they are so fascinating. Focusing on what we do know, this group of astronomers, educators, and physicists share some of the most incredible facts about the powerful and mysterious objects.
- A black hole is so massive that light (and anything else it swallows) can't escape, says Bill Nye. You can't see a black hole, theoretical physicists Michio Kaku and Christophe Galfard explain, because it is too dark. What you can see, however, is the distortion of light around it caused by its extreme gravity.
- Explaining one unsettling concept from astrophysics called spaghettification, astronomer Michelle Thaller says that "If you got close to a black hole there would be tides over your body that small that would rip you apart into basically a strand of spaghetti that would fall down the black hole."
The team caught a glimpse of a process that takes 18,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years.
- In Italy, a team of scientists is using a highly sophisticated detector to hunt for dark matter.
- The team observed an ultra-rare particle interaction that reveals the half-life of a xenon-124 atom to be 18 sextillion years.
- The half-life of a process is how long it takes for half of the radioactive nuclei present in a sample to decay.
A new study looks at what would happen to human language on a long journey to other star systems.
- A new study proposes that language could change dramatically on long space voyages.
- Spacefaring people might lose the ability to understand the people of Earth.
- This scenario is of particular concern for potential "generation ships".