from the world's big
How to Get the Most from Your Staff
Over the past twenty years, Hamel has authored 15 articles for the Harvard Business Review. He has also written for the Wall Street Journal, Fortune, The Financial Times and many other leading publications around the world.
Hamel's books, Leading the Revolution and Competing for the Future, have appeared on every management bestseller list and have been translated into more than 20 languages. His latest book, The Future of Management, was published by the Harvard Business School Press in October 2007 and was selected by Amazon.com as the best business book of the year.
Since 1983, Hamel has been on the faculty of the London Business School where he is currently Visiting Professor of Strategic and International Management.
As a consultant and management educator, Hamel has worked for companies as diverse as General Electric, Time Warner, Nokia, Nestle, Shell, Best Buy, Procter & Gamble, 3M, IBM, and Microsoft. His pioneering concepts such as "strategic intent," "core competence," "industry revolution," and "management innovation" have changed the practice of management in companies around the world.
Hamel speaks frequently at the world's most prestigious management conferences, and is a regular contributor to CNBC, CNN, and other major media outlets. He has also advised government leaders on matters of innovation policy, entrepreneurship and industrial competitiveness.
At present, Hamel is leading an effort to build the world's first "Management Lab." The MLab is a pioneering attempt to create a setting in which progressive companies and world renowned management scholars work together to co-create "tomorrow's best practices" today. The goal: to radically accelerate the evolution of management knowledge and practice.
Gary Hamel: If you want an adaptable or an innovative organization, people need more freedom. Freedom to break the rules, freedom to challenge conventional wisdom, free to go around channels, free to experiment and try to do new things, freedom to disagree. And normally, when you kind of suggest, at least in my experience, when you suggest to a manager that we need more freedom in the workplace, there's almost this instinctive fear. That if we give people more freedom, efficiency and discipline are going to, you know, just crumble.
So we've put a whole bunch of kind of constraints around people that make sure they can never screw up. But unfortunately, that particular-- how the supervision, the very tight rules, the narrow job description, lack of discretionary spending ability, lack of discretionary time even, these things are very successful in driving discipline, but they tend to kill the kind of innovation and creativity that are so important in the creative economy.
So is there another way? Well, let me give you a couple of examples. One of the most innovative companies in the world, indeed it has sometimes been called the most innovative company in the world, is WL Gore. You would know them for GORE-TEX®, the high performance fabric you find in all kinds of sporting goods, clothing and so on. But beyond that, they make about a thousand other products, from aortic grafts to fuel cells that go into membranes. Some of the world's best selling guitar strings, dental floss, an enormously creative company. Been around for 50 years, never made a loss in 50 years.
When you go inside of Gore, you discover they have a management model that's every bit as radical as their products, every bit as innovative as what they make. One of the things you discover at Gore is, there is no formal hierarchy. When you go there, people hand you their business cards, you'll see that on the business card, there's no EVP, SVP, Director, Project Manager, none of the typical hierarchical designations. When you walk around Gore, you're never going to hear words like, "supervisor, boss, direct reports, bottom up, top down." All the things that we use to describe hierarchy, those terms have no meaning at Gore. It's a lattice, not a hierarchy.
They also have a philosophy at Gore that every employee has the right to say "no" to any request. Think about that for a moment. Doesn't that sound to you like a recipe for anarchy? How would you run a disciplined organization, and by the way, Gore is pretty disciplined, they sell to Proctor & Gamble, they sell to Nike, to some very demanding customers. How do you run a disciplined organization if everyone can say no? Well, Gore gets discipline, but they get it in an unusual way. One of the mechanisms, and they have several, but one, at the end of every year, every employee goes through an evaluation process and 20 of your peers are going to weigh in on your performance that year.
There's no 360 degree review, 'cause there are no ups and downs, just a set of peers. And what they're going to ask is, how much value did Tom or Susan or Gary, how much value did they add this year? They take all those rankings, they use those to put you on a bell shaped curve and that will drive a lot of your compensation. It's a kind of brutal process, but it's also very effective. If you're any good at Gore, you're going to have a lot more requests to work on projects and help out teams than you have time for. You are going to have to say no. And sometimes you're just not interested in things and if you said yes, it wouldn't be something that fired up your passion.
Gary Hamel: The second thing that I think is fundamentally important here, is you have to have an organization where people feel like they're part of a community. Not part of a bureaucracy, not part of a hierarchy, not cogs in a machine, but they feel like a community. Think back in your own career or your own life, at the times when you were the most energized or having the most fun, making the biggest contribution. I'm willing to bet that at those points in your life, you felt like you were part of a community. It could have been a sports team in school, or maybe a school play that you were part of producing. It could have been a skunk works that you had in your company, where you got assigned to a cool new kind of a project. Maybe a church group that you're involved in, I don't know.
Twenty and more years ago, when John Mackey founded Whole Foods, a company that for sure is struggling through the current recession, but I think is going to come out of it and will continue to thrive. John Mackey said, "How do I build an entire company that feels like a community?" In fact, they don't have a mission statement; they have a statement of interdependence that says shareholders, employees, suppliers, management, nobody here can win at the expense of another constituency. We all go up or we go down together. That's the first principle of community. And how has that been operationalized in their management processes and practices? In a whole variety of ways.
First of all, the company very clearly is united around a mission. Whole Foods, Whole People, Whole Planet. How do you produce and bring to market foods that are healthier with fewer additives? It's a company in which first-line employees have enormous discretion. Small teams, do the merchandise selection, set prices, set the work hours, not the store manager, not somebody at regional headquarters. More autonomy right down there on the front lines than almost any retailer I know. The senior executives have set a limit on their compensation of 19 times the average pay in the company. As you know, in so many large organizations today, that ratio, CEO pay to first level pay, is 300 or 400 to one.
But they've done a whole variety of things to create that egalitarian sense, that sense of being in it together that is lacking in so many other organizations. People are only going to give you their very best if they feel they are truly part of a true community.
Topic: Creativity and purpose
Gary Hamel: The third thing that I think is so important here, if you really want to unleash this capability, this is where the greatest potential for efficiency gain comes from, is unlocking the creativity, the passion that people have in organizations. And I think the other thing that's so critical there, is a deep sense of purpose. You know, let me get you to think for a moment. It's kind of a little assignment I might give you.
Go back and look at the CEO's recent speeches. Transcripts I'm sure are floating around your organization or whatever leader you have in your company, your business, look at the speeches, look at the letter that gets sent out to shareholders, the chairman's letter in the annual report, whatever it may be and do a little content analysis. Look at the language that gets used there and I think you're going to see a lot of words like "value, quality, excellence, superiority, advantage, focus, differentiation." Those are great words, but I can tell you, most of those words don't stir the human soul. Those are not the words that connote the great ideals that have driven extraordinary human accomplishment.
The words that denote those ideals are things like "joy and truth and honor and loyalty and wisdom and beauty and justice." You know, I was talking about Whole Foods, year ago, John Mackey once said it, in the company, "I want to build a company based on love instead of fear." Now that's a simple little statement, it's kind of hardly objectionable. But here's a personal challenge for you. Next time you're sitting in a meeting in your business, your organization, and there's a lull in the conversation, say, "Hey guys, I want to make a point here. What we really need in this organization is, we need more love." I double dog dare you to do that. 'Cause while we all can kind of empathize, sympathize with that as a thought, building an organization based on love instead of fear, not many of us would be willing to bring that actual language into our own organizations.
So freedom, community, purpose- if you instill those things in your organization, I can assure you that you will get an extraordinary amount of contribution out of your people. One that allows you to do far more with far less than you would have ever thought possible and that of course is the objective in tough times.
Recorded on August 15, 2009
Management guru Gary Hamel argues that four factors are necessary to help employees excel: freedom, community, creativity and purpose.
Chronic irregular sleep in children was associated with psychotic experiences in adolescence, according to a recent study out of the University of Birmingham's School of Psychology.
A time for sleep<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="Mt29uUqI" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="931343dee3c02121445e51e94ba22446"> <div id="botr_Mt29uUqI_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/Mt29uUqI-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/Mt29uUqI-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/Mt29uUqI-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div> <p>Previous studies had already suggested a link between persistent nightmares in childhood and psychosis and borderline personality disorder (BPD) by adolescence, but researchers at the University of Birmingham's School of Psychology wanted to see if a similar connection existed between these mental disorders and other childhood behavioral sleep problems.</p><p>To do this, they scoured data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal cohort study that followed approximately 14,000 children born in Avon, England, in the early 1990s. The study followed the children for more than 13 years. During that time, mothers filled out questionnaires asking about the children's lives. Factors looked at included housing, parenting, nutrition, physical health, mental wellbeing, environmental exposures, and so on. </p><p>The cohort study inquired about sleep routines, sleep duration, and awakening frequency when the children were 6, 18, and 30 months old, and then again at 3.5, 4.8, and 5.8 years. It also assessed mental health in adolescence using semi-structured interviews, such as the Psychosis-Like Symptom Interview.</p><p>"We know that adolescence is a key developmental period to study the onset of many mental disorders, including psychosis or BPD. This is because of particular brain and hormonal changes which occur at this stage," <a href="https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/staff/profiles/psychology/marwaha-steven.aspx" target="_blank">Steven Marwaha</a>, professor of psychiatry at Birmingham and senior author on the study, <a href="https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/07/200701125431.htm" target="_blank">said in a release</a>. "Sleep may be one of the most important underlying factors—and it's one that we can influence with effective, early interventions, so it's important that we understand these links."</p><p>After compiling the data, the researchers discovered an association between children with irregular sleeping patterns and teenagers with <a href="https://www.mind.org.uk/information-support/types-of-mental-health-problems/psychosis/about-psychosis/" target="_blank">psychotic experiences</a>—that is, episodes when the person perceives reality differently than those around them. Even when depression at 10 years old was considered as a mediating factor, their findings still suggested "a specific pathway between these childhood sleep problems and adolescent psychotic experiences." </p><p>Toddlers with shorter nighttime sleep duration and late bedtimes were likewise associated with a <a href="https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/borderline-personality-disorder/index.shtml" target="_blank">borderline personality disorder</a>—a disorder marked by a pattern of varying moods, self-images, and behaviors—in their teenage years. Depression at age 10 did not mediate this particular association, suggesting a separate and more specific pathway. </p>
A more restful tomorrow<p>While the sample size was large and mental health was assessed with a validated interview, there nevertheless remain limitations to this data. For starters, sleep habits were based on mothers' reports. Because they came from memory, versus a more direct observation method such as actigraphy, these data may be prone to imperfect recollection and reporting error. There are also many confounders that could be secretly nudging the results, such as family conditions, prenatal medicines, and a host of environmental factors. Finally, <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6024884/#:~:text=Sleep%20difficulties%20in%20youth%20with,fear%20of%20dark%20%5B13%5D." target="_blank">the relationship between sleep problems and mental disorders</a> is both complex and two-way.</p><p>As such, the study shows an association between poor childhood sleep later mental disorders but does not prove a causal link. Parents need not worry that a string of nightmares or the eternal struggle settle into bed will be the first ingredients in a witches' brew of debilitating mental disorders. The goal of the study, the researchers point out, is not to create undue worry but improve our ability to recognize the signs of at-risk children and deliver necessary interventions earlier.</p><p>"The results of this study could have important implications for helping practitioners identify children who might be at higher risk for psychotic experiences or BPD symptoms in adolescence, and potentially lead to the design of more effectively targeted sleep or psychological interventions to prevent the onset or attenuate these mental disorders," Isabel Morales-Muñoz, the study's lead researcher, <a href="https://www.healio.com/news/psychiatry/20200702/childhood-sleep-problems-linked-to-adolescent-psychosis-borderline-personality-disorder#:~:text=Sleep%20problems%20during%20early%20childhood,study%20published%20in%20JAMA%20Psychiatry." target="_blank">told Healio Psychiatry</a><u>.</u></p><p>If a parent reading this is worried that their child's sleep patterns are deleterious, the take away should not be despair over an unyielding fate. It should be to seek professional help as soon as possible to begin improving sleep duration and quality. Even if you aren't worried, it's worth remembering that childhood experiences lay the foundation for a lifetime of salubrious sleeping habits. It's so much more than beauty rest.</p>
Are we genetically inclined for superstition or just fearful of the truth?
- From secret societies to faked moon landings, one thing that humanity seems to have an endless supply of is conspiracy theories. In this compilation, physicist Michio Kaku, science communicator Bill Nye, psychologist Sarah Rose Cavanagh, skeptic Michael Shermer, and actor and playwright John Cameron Mitchell consider the nature of truth and why some groups believe the things they do.
- "I think there's a gene for superstition, a gene for hearsay, a gene for magic, a gene for magical thinking," argues Kaku. The theoretical physicist says that science goes against "natural thinking," and that the superstition gene persists because, one out of ten times, it actually worked and saved us.
- Other theories shared include the idea of cognitive dissonance, the dangerous power of fear to inhibit critical thinking, and Hollywood's romanticization of conspiracies. Because conspiracy theories are so diverse and multifaceted, combating them has not been an easy task for science.
Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
Saudi Arabia Plans Futuristic City, "Neom" (Full Promotional Video)<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c646d528d230c1bf66c75422bc4ccf6f"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/N53DzL3_BHA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
A growing body of research suggests COVID-19 can cause serious neurological problems.
- The new study seeks to track the health of 50,000 people who have tested positive for COVID-19.
- The study aims to explore whether the disease causes cognitive impairment and other conditions.
- Recent research suggests that COVID-19 can, directly or indirectly, cause brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage and other neurological problems.
Brain images of a patient with acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis.
COVID-19 and the brain<p>A growing body of research reveals alarming neurological complications among COVID-19 patients. On Wednesday, for example, researchers from University College London published a <a href="https://academic.oup.com/brain/article/doi/10.1093/brain/awaa240/5868408" target="_blank">study</a> in the journal Brain that describes how some patients have suffered temporary brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage, and other neurological problems concurrent with COVID-19.</p><p>Some patients suffered brain inflammation as a result of a rare disease called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, which can cause numbness, seizures, and confusion. One patient in the study even hallucinated monkeys and lions in her home.</p>
Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images<p>A separate study published in the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198407/" target="_blank">Journal of Clinical Neuroscience</a> notes that some COVID-19 patients have also suffered neurological complications like impaired consciousness and acute cerebrovascular disease. The study notes that past viruses like MERS and SARS also seemed to cause neurological problems.</p><p>A troubling finding among this growing body of research is that some patients seem to suffer neurological damage even when respiratory symptoms aren't obvious. Additionally, scientists aren't sure whether damage from the disease will be permanent.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Given that the disease has only been around for a matter of months, we might not yet know what long-term damage COVID-19 can cause," Dr. Ross Paterson, joint first author of the University College London study, said in a <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-07/ucl-iid070620.php" target="_blank">press release</a>. "Doctors needs to be aware of possible neurological effects, as early diagnosis can improve patient outcomes."</p><p>If you've been diagnosed with COVID-19 and want to enroll in the study, visit <a href="https://www.cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study" target="_blank">cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study</a>.</p>